State and explain four systems of irrigation and two of drainage

Four systems of irrigation are:
i. Surface irrigation
ii. Sub-surface irrigation
iii. Sprinkler or overhead irrigation
iv. Drip or tackle irrigation.

Surface irrigation: water is applied directly to the soil from a channel located at the upper reach of the field. This is in form of strips, checks or furrows.
Sub-surface irrigation: water is applied below the ground surface by maintaining an artificial water at some depth. Water reaches the root of crops by capillary action.
Sprinkler or overhead irrigation: water is sprayed into the air and allowed to fall on the ground surface in form resembling rainfall. The water is pumped into pipes and escaped into the air through orifices or nozzles.
Drip irrigation: involve the watering of plants at predetermined frequency and with a volume of water approaching the consumptive use of the plants thereby preventing erosion, leaching and evaporation
Two systems of drainage are:
i. Surface drainage
ii. Underground or sub-surface drainage
Surface drainage: this involves the use or open ditches, field drains, land grading, etc. water in the surface is removed by this process.
Underground or sub-surface drainage: this involves the installation of materials called tiles or moles under the soil surface. They are covered by the soil and can remove excess water from the ground.

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