Cashew planting procedures and production techniques

The botanical name of Cashew is Anacardium occidentale L. It belongs to the family Anacardiaceae

Varieties: VRI 1, VRI 2, VRI 3 and VRI 4.
Soil and climate: It grows up well in all soils. Red sandy loam is best suited. Plains as well as hill slopes upto 600 - 700 feet elevation are suitable.

Season: June - December.

Propagation: Soft wood grafting, air layer and epicotyl grafting.

Requirement of plants: 200 plants/ha.

Preparation of field: Pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm size are dug and filled up with a mixture of soil + 10 kg FYM + one kg neem cake and 100 g Lindane 1.3 %.

Spacing: 7 m either way
Fertilizer application may be done during November - December in the East Coast areas.
Wherever possible the fertilizer can be applied in 2 equal split doses during June-July and October-November periods.
Intercropping: Plough the interspaces after the receipt of rain and raise either groundnut or pulses or minor millets till the trees reach bearing age.

Training and pruning: Develop the trunk to a height of 1 m by removing low lying branches.
The dried twigs and branches should be removed every year.

Plant protection against Pests
Stem borer - Collection and destruction of affected shoots.
Swabbing the bark of exposed roots and shoots with carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit. Twice a year before the onset of South West Monsoon (March – April) and after cessation of monsoon (November)
painting of coal tar + kerosene mixture (1:2) or swabbing with a suspension of carbaryl 50 WP (4 g/lit) upto one metre length in the exposed trunk region after shaving the bark.
Root feeding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml + 10 ml of water kept in a polythene bag on one side of the tree and keep the same amount on the other side of the tree (Total 20 ml/tree) divided into two equal halves will give protection when there is moderate incidence.
Swab the trunk with lindane 20 EC 1 ml/lit or carbaryl 50 WP 500 g in 20 lit of water.
Tea mosquito bug: Spray endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit thrice. The first at the time of emergence of new flushes, the second at floral formation and the third at fruit-set.
Shoot caterpillars: Spray endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit.
Root borer: Pour monocrotophos 10 ml/tree in the bore holes split into two halves (insecticide 5 ml + 5 ml water).

Diseases and protection
Die back or Pink disease: Prune the affected shoots just below the affected portion and apply Bordeaux paste. Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or copper Oxychloride 0.25 % twice i.e. in May - June and again in October as a prophylactic measure.

Harvest: The peak picking months are March and May. Good nuts are grey green, smooth and well filled. After picking, the nuts are separated from the apple and dried in the sun for two to three days to bring down the moisture content to 10 to 12 %. Properly dried nuts are packed in
alkathene bags. This will keep for 6 months.

Yield: 3 - 4 kg/tree/year.

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