Living things and nonliving things


The term Biology was coined from two greek words, Bios and logos. The former(bios) means ‘life’ while the later (logos) means ‘to study or discourse’. Forming its definition as ‘the study of life’.

Basically, there are two well known branches of biology, Botany and zoology. Botany has to do with the study of plants while zoology

deals with the study of animals.

Plants and animals which are the widely referred classes of living things possess some important characteristics. These characteristics are combine-abbreviated as MR NIGERD.

M——- Movement.

R——– Respiration.

N——– Nutrition.

I——— Irritability.

G——– Growth.

E——— Excretion.

R——— Reproduction.

D——— Death.

        Differences between plants and animals.

In order successfully classify living organisms, one has to first  know the distinguishing features between these organisms such that when you see a goat you eating  grass, you are able to recognize these differences and spot that the goat is an animal while the grass is a plant. These differences are:

1. Movement in plants is restricted while animals are able to move in different ways.

2. Plants have rigid cell walls which are on the other hand flexible in animals.

3. Plants with the aid of chlorophyl, manufacture their own food through the process of ‘photosynthesis’ but animals depend on plants for already made food.

4. Plants possess large vacuoles while animals possess little or no vacuole.

5. Plants possess cellulose cell wall which is absent in animals.

6. Plants feed holophytically (autotrophic) while animals feed holozoically (heterotrophic).

7. Plants store glucose as starch while animals store glucose as glycogen.

8. Plants store waste products without harm but animals on the other hand remove waste products because they are toxic/harmful.

9. Growth in plants has no limit but in animals growth gradually comes to a standstill.

10. Plants are slow in response to stimuli while animals are fast in their response.

11. Growth in plant is apical( ie they grow mostly at roots and shoot) while animals grow mostly in all parts (diffused growth)

12. Most plants have characteristic green colour while animals possess different colours.

              Scientific processes

Scientific processes are referred to as the basic processes through which scientist pass through in making discovery. This processes begin from the time the scientist got an idea till the time the idea is proved, concluded and generally accepted.

The basic scientific processes are:

1. Observation.

2. Classification.

3. Inference.

4. Prediction.

5. Measurement.

6. Communication.

7. Problem identification.

8. Formating questions and hypothesis.

9. Formulating model.

The above are the scientific processes, not explained because it has been broken down from the usual four-five-process classification.