Nigeria
Cameroon


Background

British influence and control over
what would become Nigeria and Africa’s most populous country grew through the
19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria
greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of
military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful
transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to
face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues
have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and
institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience
longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007
presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and
violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian
rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first
civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country’s history and the
elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. In January 2014,
Nigeria assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the
2014-15 term.

French Cameroon became independent
in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon. The following year the southern portion
of neighboring British Cameroon voted to merge with the new country to form
the Federal Republic of Cameroon. In 1972, a new constitution replaced the
federation with a unitary state, the United Republic of Cameroon. The country
has generally enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of
agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite
slow movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the
hands of President Paul BIYA.

Geography

Nigeria
Cameroon
Location
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf
of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Central Africa, bordering the
Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria
Geographic coordinates
10 00 N, 8 00 E
6 00 N, 12 00 E
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 472,710 sq km
water: 2,730 sq km
Area – comparative
slightly more than twice the size
of California
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries
total: 4,477 km
border countries: Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger
1,608 km
total: 5,018 km
border countries: Central African Republic 901 km, Chad 1,116 km,
Republic of the Congo 494 km, Equatorial Guinea 183 km, Gabon 349 km, Nigeria
1,975 km
Coastline
853 km
402 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate
varies; equatorial in south,
tropical in center, arid in north
varies with terrain, from tropical
along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Terrain
southern lowlands merge into
central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
diverse, with coastal plain in
southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chapel Waddi 2,419 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako 4,095 m (on Mt. Cameroon)
Natural resources
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron
ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
petroleum, bauxite, iron ore,
timber, hydropower
Land use
arable land: 38.97%
permanent crops: 3.46%
other: 57.57% (2011)
arable land: 13.04%
permanent crops: 2.94%
other: 84.01% (2011)
Irrigated land
2,932 sq km (2004)
256.5 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards
periodic droughts; flooding
volcanic activity with periodic
releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
volcanism: Mt. Cameroon (elev. 4,095 m), which last erupted in 2000,
is the most frequently active volcano in West Africa; lakes in Oku volcanic
field have released fatal levels of gas on occasion, killing some 1,700
people in 1986
Environment – current issues
soil degradation; rapid deforestation;
urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution – water, air,
and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land;
rapid urbanization
waterborne diseases are prevalent;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Environment – international
agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography – note
the Niger enters the country in
the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to
its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
sometimes referred to as the hinge
of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and
indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the
highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano
Total renewable water resources
286.2 cu km (2011)
285.5 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal
(domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total: 13.11 cu km/yr (31%/15%/54%)
per capita: 89.21 cu m/yr (2005)
total: 0.97 cu km/yr (23%/10%/68%)
per capita: 58.9 cu m/yr (2005)

Demographics

Nigeria
Cameroon
Population
177,155,754
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population
growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex
than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
23,130,708
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population
growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex
than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 43.2% (male 39,151,304/female
37,353,737)
15-24 years: 19.3% (male 17,486,117/female 16,732,533)
25-54 years: 30.5% (male 27,697,644/female 26,285,816)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 3,393,631/female 3,571,301)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 2,621,845/female 2,861,826) (2014 est.)
0-14 years: 42.9% (male 5,001,984/female
4,927,122)
15-24 years: 19.6% (male 2,286,244/female 2,257,231)
25-54 years: 30.4% (male 3,529,203/female 3,491,125)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 445,181/female 468,388)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 337,490/female 386,740) (2014 est.)
Median age
total: 18.2 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.3 years (2014 est.)
total: 18.3 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 18.4 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate
2.47% (2014 est.)
2.6% (2014 est.)
Birth rate
38.03 births/1,000 population
(2014 est.)
36.58 births/1,000 population
(2014 est.)
Death rate
13.16 deaths/1,000 population
(2014 est.)
10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2014
est.)
Net migration rate
-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2014 est.)
-0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2014 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 74.09 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 79.02 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 68.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
total: 55.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.78 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 52.62 years
male: 51.63 years
female: 53.66 years (2014 est.)
total population: 57.35 years
male: 56.09 years
female: 58.65 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate
5.25 children born/woman (2014
est.)
4.82 children born/woman (2014
est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate
3.1% (2012 est.)
4.5% (2012 est.)
Nationality
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian
Ethnic groups
Nigeria, Africa’s most populous
country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the
most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%,
Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Cameroon Highlanders 31%,
Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern
Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
HIV/AIDS – people living with
HIV/AIDS
3,426,600 (2012 est.)
600,500 (2012 est.)
Religions
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%,
indigenous beliefs 10%
indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian
40%, Muslim 20%
HIV/AIDS – deaths
239,700 (2012 est.)
34,600 (2012 est.)
Languages
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba,
Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
24 major African language groups,
English (official), French (official)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 61.3%
male: 72.1%
female: 50.4% (2010 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 71.3%
male: 78.3%
female: 64.8% (2010 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly
endemic areas for Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in
this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible
among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
School life expectancy (primary to
tertiary education)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2005)
total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2011)
Education expenditures
NA
3.2% of GDP (2011)
Urbanization
urban population: 49.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.75% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 52.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.23% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water source
improved:
urban: 78.8% of population
rural: 49.1% of population
total: 64% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.2% of population
rural: 50.9% of population
total: 36% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 94.1% of population
rural: 51.9% of population
total: 74.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.9% of population
rural: 48.1% of population
total: 25.9% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved:
urban: 30.8% of population
rural: 24.7% of population
total: 27.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 69.2% of population
rural: 75.3% of population
total: 72.2% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 61.7% of population
rural: 26.8% of population
total: 45.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 38.3% of population
rural: 73.2% of population
total: 54.8% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities – population
Lagos 11.223 million; Kano 3.375
million; Ibadan 2.949 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.153 million; Port Harcourt
1.894 million; Kaduna 1.524 million (2011)
Douala 2.449 million; YAOUNDE
(capital) 2.432 million (2011)
Maternal mortality rate
630 deaths/100,000 live births
(2010)
690 deaths/100,000 live births
(2010)
Children under the age of 5 years
underweight
24.4% (2011)
15.1% (2011)
Health expenditures
5.3% of GDP (2011)
5.2% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density
0.4 physicians/1,000 population
(2008)
0.08 physicians/1,000 population
(2009)
Hospital bed density
0.53 beds/1,000 population (2004)
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity – adult prevalence rate
6.5% (2008)
10.3% (2008)
Child labor – children ages 5-14
total number: 11,396,823
percentage: 29 % (2007 est.)
total number: 1,396,281
percentage: 31 % (2006 est.)
Mother’s mean age at first birth
20.3
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
19.7
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
14.1% (2011)
23.4% (2011)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 89.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 84 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
potential support ratio: 19.3 (2014 est.)
total dependency ratio: 85.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 79.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6 %
potential support ratio: 16.8 (2014 est.)

Government

Nigeria
Cameroon
Country name
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
local long form: Republique du Cameroun/Republic of Cameroon
local short form: Cameroun/Cameroon
former: French Cameroon, British Cameroon, Federal Republic of
Cameroon, United Republic of Cameroon
Government type
federal republic
republic; multiparty presidential
regime
Capital
name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during
Standard Time)
name: Yaounde
geographic coordinates: 3 52 N, 11 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during
Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia,
Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River,
Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo,
Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger,
Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
10 regions (regions, singular –
region); Adamaoua, Centre, East (Est), Far North (Extreme-Nord), Littoral,
North (Nord), North-West (Nord-Ouest), West (Ouest), South (Sud), South-West
(Sud-Ouest)
Independence
1 October 1960 (from the UK)
1 January 1960 (from
French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday
Independence Day (National Day), 1
October (1960)
Republic Day (National Day), 20
May (1972)
Constitution
several previous; latest adopted 5
May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended 2010 (2010)
several previous; latest effective
18 January 1996; amended 2008 (2008)
Legal system
mixed legal system of English
common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
mixed legal system of English
common law, French civil law, and customary law
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since
5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi
SAMBO (since 19 May 2010); note – the president is both chief of state and
head of government; JONATHAN assumed the presidency on 5 May 2010 following
the death of President YAR’ADUA; JONATHAN was elected president on 16 April 2011

head of government: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010,
acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19
May 2010)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term
(eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 April 2011 (next to be
held in February 2015)
election results: Goodluck JONATHAN elected president; percent of vote
– Goodluck JONATHAN 58.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI 32.0%, Nuhu RIBADU 5.4%, Ibrahim
SHEKARAU 2.4%, other 1.3%
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6
November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Philemon YANG (since 30 June 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted
by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term
(with no term limits per 2008 constitutional amendment); election last held
on 9 October 2011 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed
by the president
election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote –
Paul BIYA 78.0%, John FRU NDI 10.7%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.2%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA
1.7%, Paul Abine AYAH 1.3%, other 5.1%
Legislative branch
bicameral National Assembly
consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of
Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: Senate – last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held
in February 2015); House of Representatives – last held on 9 and 26 April
2011 (next to be held in February 2015)
election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by
party – PDP 73, ACN 17, ANPP 7, CPC 6, LP 4, other 2; House of
Representatives – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PDP 205,
ACN 69, CPC 36, ANPP 28, LP 9, APGA 6, ACC 5, other 2; note – due to
logistical problems elections in a number of constituencies were held on 26
April 2011
bicameral legislature consisting
of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 70 indirectly elected by municipal
councils, 30 appointed by the President) and a National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve
five-year terms); note – the president can either lengthen or shorten the
term of the legislature; a senate was initially designated in 1996 by
constitutional amendment but was only convened following a presidential
decree in 2013
elections: Senate last held on 14 April 2013 (next to be held NA);
National Assembly last held on 30 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party
– CPDM 56, SDF 14; National Assembley percent of vote by party – NA; seats by
party – CPDM 148, SDF 18, UNDP 5, UDC 4, UPC 3, other 2
Judicial branch
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the
chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president
on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member
independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments
confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of
the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital
Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state
court system similar in structure to federal system
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cameroon
(consists of 9 titular and 6 surrogate judges and organized into judicial,
administrative, and audit chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 11
members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by
the president with the advice of the Higher Judicial Council of Cameroon (a
body chaired by the president and includes the minister of justice, selected
magistrates, and representatives of the National Assembly); judge term NA;
Constitutional Council members appointed by the president for single 9-year
terms
subordinate courts: Parliamentary Court of Justice (jurisdiction
limited to cases involving the president and prime minister); appellate and
first instance courts; circuit and magistrate’s courts
Political parties and leaders
Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad
Lawal MALADO]
Action Congress of Nigeria or ACN [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE]
All Nigeria Peoples Party or ANPP [Ogbonnaya C. ONU]
All Progressives Congress [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE, acting]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
Congress for Progressive Change or CPC [Tony MOMOH]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party [Chief Dan NWANYANWU]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Adamu MU’AZU]
Cameroon People’s Democratic
Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]
Cameroon People’s Party or CPP [Edith Kah WALLA]
Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]
Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]
Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel
YONDO]
National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]
Progressive Movement or MP [Jean-Jacques EKINDI]
Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]
Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [The PMB, provisionary management bureau]
Political pressure groups and
leaders
Academic Staff Union for
Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
the press
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
Human Rights Defense Group [Albert
MUKONG, president]
Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]
International organization
participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS,
EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC
(national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO,
MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security
Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA,
UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, C, CEMAC,
EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national
committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM,
OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU,
WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the
US
chief of mission: Ambassador Adebowale Ibidapo
ADEFUYE (since 26 March 2010)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph FOE-ATANGANA
(since 12 September 2008)
chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; current
temporary address – 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790
FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
Diplomatic representation from the
US
chief of mission: Ambassador James F. ENTWISTLE
(since 28 October 2013)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4171
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge
d’Affaires Gregory THOME
embassy: Avenue Rosa Parks, Yaounde
mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, US
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 2220 15 00; Consular: [237] 2220 16 03
FAX: [237] 2220 15 00 Ext. 4531; Consular FAX: [237] 2220 17 52
branch office(s): Douala
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of
green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests
and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
three equal vertical bands of
green (hoist side), red, and yellow, with a yellow five-pointed star centered
in the red band; the vertical tricolor recalls the flag of France; red
symbolizes unity, yellow the sun, happiness, and the savannahs in the north,
and green hope and the forests in the south; the star is referred to as the
“star of unity”
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem
name: “Arise Oh Compatriots,
Nigeria’s Call Obey”
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu
OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
note: adopted 1978; the lyrics are a mixture of five of the top
entries in a national contest
name: “O Cameroun, Berceau de nos
Ancetres” (O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Rene Djam AFAME, Samuel Minkio BAMBA, Moise Nyatte NKO’O
[French], Benard Nsokika FONLON [English]/Rene Djam AFAME
note: adopted 1957; Cameroon’s anthem, also known as “Chant de
Ralliement” (The Rallying Song), has been used unofficially since 1948
and officially adopted in 1957; the anthem has French and English versions
whose lyrics differ
International law organization
participation
accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt

Economy

Nigeria
Cameroon
Economy – overview
Following an April 2014
statistical “rebasing” exercise, Nigeria has emerged as Africa’s
largest economy, with 2013 GDP estimated at US$ 502 billion. Oil has been a
dominant source of government revenues since the 1970s. Regulatory
constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural
gas, and Nigeria’s oil production contracted in 2012 and 2013. Nevertheless,
the Nigerian economy has continued to grow at a rapid 6-8% per annum
(pre-rebasing), driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and
services, and the medium-term outlook for Nigeria is good, assuming oil
output stabilizes and oil prices remain strong. Fiscal authorities pursued
countercyclical policies in 2011-2013, significantly reducing the budget
deficit. Monetary policy has also been responsive and effective. Following
the 2008-9 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively
recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Despite its strong fundamentals,
oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of
infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient
property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent
regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable
dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Economic
diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant
decline in poverty levels – over 62% of Nigeria’s 170 million people live in
extreme poverty. President JONATHAN has established an economic team that
includes experienced and reputable members and has announced plans to
increase transparency, continue to diversify production, and further improve
fiscal management. The government is working to develop stronger
public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.
Because of its modest oil
resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the
best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it
faces many of the serious problems confronting other underdeveloped
countries, such as stagnant per capita income, a relatively inequitable
distribution of income, a top-heavy civil service, endemic corruption, and a
generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government
has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business
investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and
recapitalize the nation’s banks. The IMF is pressing for more reforms,
including increased budget transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction
programs. Subsidies for electricity, food, and fuel have strained the budget.
Cameroon has several large infrastructure projects under construction,
including a deep sea port in Kribi and the Lom Pangar Hydropower Project. It
also recently opened a natural gas powered electricity generating plant.
Cameroon must attract more investment to improve its inadequate
infrastructure, but its business environment is a deterrent to foreign
investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity)
$478.5 billion (2013 est.)
$450.4 billion (2012 est.)
$422.6 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$53.16 billion (2013 est.)
$50.85 billion (2012 est.)
$48.62 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP – real growth rate
6.2% (2013 est.)
6.6% (2012 est.)
7.4% (2011 est.)
4.6% (2013 est.)
4.6% (2012 est.)
4.1% (2011 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP)
$2,800 (2013 est.)
$2,700 (2012 est.)
$2,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$2,400 (2013 est.)
$2,400 (2012 est.)
$2,300 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector
agriculture: 30.9%
industry: 43%
services: 26% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 20.6%
industry: 27.3%
services: 52.1% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line
70% (2010 est.)
48% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by
percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 35.4% (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
8.7% (2013 est.)
12.2% (2012 est.)
2.6% (2013 est.)
2.9% (2012 est.)
Labor force
51.53 million (2011 est.)
8.426 million (2013 est.)
Labor force – by occupation
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
agriculture: 70%
industry: 13%
services: 17% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate
23.9% (2011 est.)
4.9% (2007 est.)
30% (2001 est.)
Distribution of family income –
Gini index
43.7 (2003)
50.6 (1997)
44.6 (2001)
47.7 (1996)
Budget
revenues: $23.85 billion
expenditures: $31.51 billion (2013 est.)
revenues: $5.089 billion
expenditures: $6.28 billion (2013 est.)
Industries
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite;
rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other
construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer,
printing, ceramics, steel
petroleum production and refining,
aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber,
ship repair
Industrial production growth rate
0.9% (2013 est.)
4.1% (2013 est.)
Agriculture – products
cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil,
corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle,
sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber,
bananas, oilseed, grains, cassava (manioc, tapioca); livestock; timber
Exports
$93.55 billion (2013 est.)
$95.68 billion (2012 est.)
$6.002 billion (2013 est.)
$6.015 billion (2012 est.)
Exports – commodities
petroleum and petroleum products
95%, cocoa, rubber
crude oil and petroleum products,
lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton
Exports – partners
US 16.8%, India 11.5%, Netherlands
8.6%, Spain 7.8%, Brazil 7.6%, UK 5.1%, Germany 4.9%, Japan 4.1%, France 4.1%
(2012)
China 15.2%, Netherlands 9.7%,
Spain 9.1%, India 8.6%, Portugal 8.1%, Italy 6%, US 5.5%, France 4% (2012)
Imports
$55.98 billion (2013 est.)
$53.36 billion (2012 est.)
$6.795 billion (2013 est.)
$6.321 billion (2012 est.)
Imports – commodities
machinery, chemicals, transport
equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
machinery, electrical equipment,
transport equipment, fuel, food
Imports – partners
China 18.3%, US 10.1%, India 5.5%
(2012)
China 18.7%, France 14.9%, Nigeria
12.3%, Belgium 5.2%, US 4.4%, India 4.2% (2012)
Debt – external
$15.73 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$13.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.455 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$3.207 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates
nairas (NGN) per US dollar –
156.8 (2013 est.)
156.81 (2012 est.)
150.3 (2010 est.)
148.9 (2009)
117.8 (2008)
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique
Centrale francs (XAF) per dollar –
500.7 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
Fiscal year
calendar year
1 July – 30 June
Public debt
19.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
17.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
16.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and
gold
$47.7 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$46.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.353 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$3.431 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Current Account Balance
$16.16 billion (2013 est.)
$20.35 billion (2012 est.)
-$1.461 billion (2013 est.)
-$956.2 million (2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$502 billion (2013 est.)
$27.88 billion (2013 est.)
Market value of publicly traded
shares
$56.39 billion (31 December 2012
est.)
$39.27 billion (31 December 2011)
$50.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$230 million (31 December 2012
est.)
Central bank discount rate
4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
6% (31 December 2009 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
15.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
16.79% (31 December 2012 est.)
14% (31 December 2013 est.)
14% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$93.46 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$93.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$2.898 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$2.772 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$46.48 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$44.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.764 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$3.482 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money
$98.75 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$96.34 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$6.195 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
$5.731 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
4.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
-4.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP – composition, by end use
household consumption: 50.3%
government consumption: 12.8%
investment in fixed capital: 9.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 49.9%
imports of goods and services: -22.8%
(2013 est.)
household consumption: 65.6%
government consumption: 16%
investment in fixed capital: 21.7%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 31.7%
imports of goods and services: -35%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving
15.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
15.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
15.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
21% of GDP (2012 est.)
19.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
Energy
        Nigeria
Cameroon
Electricity – production
24.87 billion kWh (2010 est.)
5.761 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – consumption
20.38 billion kWh (2010 est.)
5.181 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – exports
0 kWh (2012 est.)
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity – imports
0 kWh (2012 est.)
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Oil – production
2.524 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
63,520 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Oil – imports
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
34,220 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – exports
2.341 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
55,680 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – proved reserves
37.2 billion bbl (1 January 2013
est.)
200 million bbl (1 January 2013
est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves
5.153 trillion cu m (1 January
2013 est.)
135.1 billion cu m (1 January 2013
est.)
Natural gas – production
31.36 billion cu m (2011 est.)
150 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – consumption
5.03 billion cu m (2010 est.)
210 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – exports
25.96 billion cu m (2011 est.)
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – imports
0 cu m (2011 est.)
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Electricity – installed generating
capacity
5.9 million kW (2010 est.)
1.115 million kW (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products –
production
101,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
43,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products –
consumption
271,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
29,410 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products –
exports
18,750 bbl/day (2010 est.)
13,370 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products –
imports
151,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
6,018 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from
consumption of energy
75.96 million Mt (2011 est.)
8.126 million Mt (2011 est.)
Telecommunications
Nigeria
Cameroon
Telephones – main lines in use
418,200 (2012)
737,400 (2012)
Telephones – mobile cellular
112.78 million (2012)
13.1 million (2012)
Telephone system
general assessment: further expansion and
modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality
remains a problem
domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002
resulted in faster growth but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100
persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the
shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate
nationally with subscribership base approaching 60 per 100 persons
international: country code – 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC
fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia;
satellite earth stations – 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
(2010)
general assessment: system includes cable, microwave
radio relay, and tropospheric scatter; Camtel, the monopoly provider of
fixed-line service, provides connections for only about 3 per 100 persons;
equipment is old and outdated, and connections with many parts of the country
are unreliable
domestic: mobile-cellular usage, in part a reflection of the poor
condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network, has increased
sharply, reaching a subscribership base of 50 per 100 persons
international: country code – 237; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC
fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia;
satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Internet country code
.ng
.cm
Internet users
43.989 million (2009)
749,600 (2009)
Internet hosts
1,234 (2012)
10,207 (2012)
Broadcast media
nearly 70 federal
government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states
operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and
satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal
government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly
40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs
except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of
international broadcasters are available (2007)
government maintains tight control
over broadcast media; state-owned Cameroon Radio Television (CRTV),
broadcasting on both a TV and radio network, was the only officially recognized
and fully licensed broadcaster until August 2007 when the government finally
issued licenses to 2 private TV broadcasters and 1 private radio broadcaster;
about 70 privately owned, unlicensed radio stations operating but are subject
to closure at any time; foreign news services required to partner with
state-owned national station (2007)

Transportation

Nigeria
Cameroon
Railways
total: 3,505 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
total: 1,245 km
narrow gauge: 1,245 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways
total: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
total: 51,350 km
paved: 4,108 km
unpaved: 47,242 km
note: there are 28,857 km of national roads (2011)
Waterways
8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers
and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
(major rivers in the south, such
as the Wouri and the Sanaga, are largely non-navigable; in the north, the
Benue, which connects through Nigeria to the Niger River, is navigable in the
rainy season only to the port of Garoua) (2010)
Pipelines
condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km;
liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
gas 53 km; liquid petroleum gas 5
km; oil 1,107 km; water 35 km (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar,
Lagos
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island
river port(s): Douala (Wouri); Garoua (Benoue)
oil/gas terminal(s): Limboh Terminal
Airports
54 (2013)
33 (2013)
Airports – with paved runways
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
            914 to 1,523 m: 1
(2013)
Airports – with unpaved runways
total: 14    
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m:
3 (2013)
           total: 22
          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
          914 to 1,523 m: 10
           under 914 m:
            8 (2013)

Military

Nigeria
Cameroon
Military branches
Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy,
Air Force (2013)
Cameroon Armed Forces (Forces
Armees Camerounaises, FAC), Army (L’Armee de Terre), Navy (Marine Nationale
Republique (MNR), includes naval infantry), Air Force (Armee de l’Air du
Cameroun, AAC), Fire Fighter Corps, Gendarmerie (2013)
Military service age and
obligation
18 years of age for voluntary
military service; no conscription (2012)
18-23 years of age for male and
female voluntary military service; no conscription; high school graduation
required; service obligation 4 years; the government makes periodic calls for
volunteers (2012)
Manpower available for military
service
males age 16-49: 37,087,711
females age 16-49: 35,232,127 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 4,667,251
females age 16-49: 4,548,909 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49: 20,839,976
females age 16-49: 19,867,683 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 2,794,998
females age 16-49: 2,718,110 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily
significant age annually
male: 1,767,428
female: 1,687,719 (2010 est.)
male: 215,248
female: 211,636 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures – percent of
GDP
0.89% of GDP (2012)
0.98% of GDP (2011)
0.89% of GDP (2010)
1.42% of GDP (2012)
1.37% of GDP (2011)
1.42% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Nigeria
Cameroon
Disputes – international
Joint Border Commission with
Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally
resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that
immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a
phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation
issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial
Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely
defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between
Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River
all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have
heeded the Lake Chad Commission’s admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty
which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of
Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
Joint Border Commission with
Nigeria reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally
resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that
immediately ceded sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a
full phase-out of Nigerian control and patriation of residents in 2008;
Cameroon and Nigeria agreed on maritime delimitation in March 2008; sovereignty
dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of
the Ntem River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad
Commission’s admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also
includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced
persons
IDPs: 3.3 million (Boko Haram attacks
and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between
Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence;
flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources;
displacement is mostly short-term) (2014)
refugees (country of origin): 184,536 (Central African
Republic); 12,400 (Nigeria) (2014)