SECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA (PROJECT STUDY)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     BACKGROUND
OF STUDY
          However, the concept security is
meaningless without a critical discuss of something pertinent to secure
security could be best understood as the provision of safety to live and
properties around. It the long sweep of human history the control focus of
security has been people (ROTH SCHILD 1995 – 1968) some scholar especially
those on international politics have argued that when thinking about security,
state should be the most important reference on the other hand, some analyst
have challenge this position by arguing any intellectual discuss on security should
accord priority to human being since without reference to individuals, human in
security make no sense (MC SAVENCY 1999 – 127). Not with standing, these
controversial debates. The focus of this investigation is on micro security.
The result of the investigation reveals that the challenges in Nigeria have
traceable to bad governance. The paper argues that the abysmal failure of
successive administration Nigeria to address challenges such as poverty,
Unemployment and illiteracy, resulted to anger, agitation and violent. Crime
against the Nigerian State by some individuals and group such crime includes,
kidnapping, armed robbery, Boko haram (terrorism), religions crisis among
others. This paper shows or examine security challenges in our nations highways
from 2013 – 2015. The paper looks further to find out the extent to which the
internal security problems have adversely impacted on the high ways of our
country and the economy within the above period. The paper further argues that
the activities of various armed robbery group consequently resulted in low
income of government from oil revenue and low participation of local and foreign
investors in economic development, insecurity of lives and properties of  the citizen among others. The study recommends
the formulation and affection. Implementation of police and programmed capable
of addressing the roots causes of insecurity in Nigeria such as Unemployment,
illiteracy, poverty, injustices among others. Therefore, security is ‘survival
plus” and the word mentioned “plus” is understood or could be seen as the start
point of being able to enjoy some freedom from life determine threat and some
life choice.
          However, micro – security deals with
the internal state of confusion therefore not the study, is to examine the
security challenges in Nigerian highways and the extent to which it affect the
economy to the extent to which the criminal of different nature and native have
adversely affect the good and patriotic people of  Nigeria from 2010 – 2104. This is vital
considering the fact that micro – security starts with the stabilization of
internal security of given nation state. The essence of this strategy is not
only to safeguard crime free in our nation highway. These micro – security
organizations that make sure security is archived in our nation highways
includes the following.
1.       Highway patrol team
2.       Special Anti robbery squad
3.       Anti terrorism squad
4.       Civil defense 
5.       Nigeria immigration service
6.       Nigeria custom service
7.       Patrol team
8.       Joint military task force (JTF)
1.2     STATEMENT
OF THE PROBLEM
          The high rate of crime in Nigeria has
generated a lot of concerned to the government and international community,
because of human and material losses as a result of highway crimes lives and
properties of people has been lost.
1.3     AIMS
AND OBJECTIVES
1.       To
know how far the government have gone to fight insecurity in our nation
highways.
2.       To
know the security threat in our nation high ways and how to tackle it.
3.       Provide
possible solution
4.       To see
how the issue of crime in our nation highways can be talk.
1.4     RESEARCH
QUESTIONS
1.       What
role has the Nigerian police force (NPF) has been playing against in effective
security in our nation highways.
2.       Would
lack of security cause security threat in our nation highways.
3.       Can
political issue cause security threat in our nation highways.
4.       Will
Unemployment cause security threat in our nation highways.
1.5     SCOPE OF STUDY
                   This
study is restricted by to effectiveness of genuine security in our nation highways
using Kaduna State territory as a case of study.
1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
                   The
study will reveal the causes, effects, challenges of insecurity in our nations
highways as it affect the economy according to the finding or research gotten from
criminal investigation department (C,D) of the Kaduna State police command
(Railway Quarters, Sabon Gari Zaria) According to the findings within the
highways in Kaduna State territory a total of 
eleven thousand three hundred (11,300) related high way cases were
reported to occur. Out of which two hundred (200) healthy arm, three hundred
and eighty (380) partially arm and seventeen direct minder.         
1.7     LIMITATION
OF THE STUDY
In respect of this research, the researcher
encountered some problems which sought to militate against the successful completion
of this work. They include.
i.        Insufficient availability of required
materials/date
ii.       Time and financial constrain
iii.      Reluctant
attitude by the respondent and other relevant port data dissemination
department.
1.8     DEFINITION OF TERM
1.       Security
2.       Highway
3.       Informant
4.       Robbery
5.       Investigation
6.       Terrorism
7.       Plus
1.8.1  SECURITY
                   Security
is define or is refers to as all measures that is taken to protect a place,
life and properties or to ensure safety to people with permission to enter or
leave the place.
1.8.2  HIGHWAY
                   There
are routs that link from one state to another or from major city to the other,
and is also called a truck a road, link from state to state, truck broad, state
government control link from one local government to another.
1.8.3  INFORMANT
                   Informant
is someone who is been assign or who is specialized on giving vital information
against someone or a place (area) he pretended sharing the same mentality together
or lived to the security agent either direct or through proxy. In other to
fulfill his promises or in return for cash, some might be personals.
1.84ROBBERY
                   This
is the act of robbery especially theft with threat the issuing of threat to
have something, forcing or violence with the use of arms or weapon.
1.85   INVESTIGATION
                   This
is to carry out or finding of information on a crime committed or a person who
commit a crime or looking for information on something.
1.8.6  TEPRORISM
                   The
use of violence action in other to achieve a political aim or to force a
government to act.
1.8.7  PLUS
                   Plus
is defined or seen as starting points of being able to enjoy some freedom from
life determine threat and some life choice.  



CHAPTER
TWO
2.1     INTRODUCTION
                    This chapter two of this research work
will basically emphasize on security challenges in our nation highways and as
it affects our economy and how it can be sustain security is the prospection
against criminals such as terrorism, theft, espionage, etc. security is also
seen or considered as any mechanism deliberately fashion to alleviate from
pursing their cherish values. Nigeria the achievement or deserved level of
internal security particularly from 2010 – 2014 was emissive. The most serious
and immediate threat that prevent people posed serious security threat to the
road users and the economy of Nigeria. Thus, such un whole some behaviors which
not only affected economics activities in many part of Nigeria citizen.
2.2     NIGERIA
AND INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES CASE STUDIES
                   Security
is considered s any mechanism deliberately fashion to alleviate the most
serious and immediate threat that prevent people from pursing their cherish
value. In Nigeria the achievement of desire level of internal security
particularly from 2010 – 2014 was elusive the period witness the highest
unemployment rate. The country has ever experience which pose a serious
security threat to our nation highways crime such as arm robbery, kidnapping, raping
of innocent citizen, engaging in fraud related activities such unwanted behavior
which not only affected the economics activities in many part of Nigeria have
also resulted in loss of numerous lives and properties in Nigeria citizen.
2.3              ARMED ROBBERY CHALLENGE TO NIGERIA
HIGHWAYS
                   The
activities of armed bandits are one of the greatest menaces to road security in
Nigeria. The robbers carried out the notorious activities and dastardly act of
raping, manning, killing, snatching money and property from the road users. the
robbers are designated as the “king of the road” in Nigeria. This makers the
passengers to be perpetual fear of being dispossessed of their money, personal
belonging harm and kills. Interstate transportations has been hazardous and risky.
The example of it is armed a robbery attacks had been frequent on the port
Harcourt to Onitsha – kam highways. One of the incident that happened on FG
Onyenure transport service one of the nixing bois on the 7th
September, 1999 along Auchi – Lokoja “road. Many passengers loss their lives at
gun point others were seriously injured, another incident of armed robbery
attacks was one Ekene Dilichukwu uncurious bus along Asaba – Benin road enroot
Lagos. The passengers were robbed twice on their way before reaching Lagos. The
Employment of police Escort by the transport company has failed to reduce
incidence of the men of the underworld who are realty apprehended. The result
is that’s Nigeria routs has been left to degenerate over years. Examples of
this rout abound but the one that  readily come to mind in recent times is the
Benin – Ore express way which has one a nightmare to the drivers and
communities it is the only road that connect the western and the eastern part
of the country.
                   Minister
of works who visited the Benin – Ore road in 2009 was shocked by the extent of
devastation and promise to rehabilitee it. This has not been done because
passengers still recount their harrowing experience. Accident  happen frequently in the road and passengers
ended up traffic jam caused by the bad portion of the road. Frank Nnegi the
managing director of ABC transport one of the prominent luxury bus transport
service that the rout on daily basic narrated the communities went through the
Benin – Ore road this way. It is saddening that people leave Lagos early but
never get to the east until after 36 hours. Frank Nnegi who is also the
secretary of the association of the luxury bus owner of Nigeria (ALBON) had in
a communiqué jointly signed by him and the (ALBON) president prine Ejike Okoli,
called for an urgent intervention programmed on the Benin – Ore expressway to
ensure that internal flow of traffic was restored. He started that “as a way of
ameliorating hardship face by travelers. ALBON member often brought chipping
and brick object with which it members filed and made the bad portion of the
road possible the media’s replete with going tales of robbers raiding roads
travelers and disposing of goods and cash at time the lives. Even in Northern
Nigeria where the issue of highway robbery used to be unheard or of criminals
arm robbery attack are now rampard. The question is where the land enforcement
agent is what is the used of those numerous check points if they cannot check
this robbery or at least apprehend them after operations.
2.4     BOKO
HARAM CRISIS AS CHALLENGE TO NIGERIA HIGHWAYS AND OUR ECONOMY
                   One
of the major security challenges in Nigeria which adversely pose or made a
serious threat to the nation highways and directly affected the Nigeria economy
in the activities of the Boko Haram group. Etymologically term “Boko Haram” is
derived from hausa word “Boko” means western education and the Arabic word
Haram is a controversial Nigeria militant Islamic group that seek the
imposition of sharia law in Northern States of Nigeria ideologically, the
groups oppose not only western education but western culture and modern science
as while (Duma 2006) comically. The word Haram is an  Arabic words which means forbidden. These Boko
Haram groups assert that the belief that the world is here, is contrary to
Islam and should be rejected, along Darwism theory that rain cause a result of
water evaporation by the sun should be ignored. Historically the Boko Haram
group was founded in 2002 in Maiduguri by us tray Mohammed Yusuf. In 2004, it
moved to Kanama in Yobe State ‘where it set up a based called “Afghanistan” used
to attack nearby police station and killing police office. Awowole  (Brown 2010). However, the founder of the
group Mohammed Yusuf was hostile to democracy and specula educational system.
This partially explain why he vowed that the war began 2002 would philately
damage the political and educational system in Nigeria. A dream comes from not
realized till his dead in 2009. Book Haram group does not mix with local people
in the north and bit of its members that neighboring had speak only Arabic.
These perhaps explain why the group said western education is wrong. The group
strongly belief in Korana phrase which says “anyone who is not govern by what
Allah has reveals is among the transgressors, consequently the Boko Haram group
promotes the version of Islam which makes “Haram” or forbidden for Muslim to
take part in any political or social activities in the western society. These
include voting in election, weaning shirt and trousers or relieving a secular
education (BBC news Africa it, June, 2010). The activities of Boko Haram group
constitute seriously challenges of the contemporary Nigeria. This range of
taking sage of major highways, stopping vehide, pedestrian then kill and miming
them, disposing them of their money and property, raping of women to bombing of
major cities and police station in the northern part of Nigeria, particularly,
Adamawa, Borno, Yobe, Abuja, Kaduna and Kano and of recount Plateau State among
others. These are chronologically highways attacks masterminded by the Boko
Haram group in North Eastern part of the country since 2010.
1.       Intercept
a truck carrying food items from Maiduguri – Damaturu road April 2004.
2.       Trades
were attack traveling at Ngach town 28 March, 2014.
3.       Insurgent
killed two motorist as the truck along Maiduguri – Damaturu by road 16th
– June – 2014.
4.       Tourist
attack communities on Damaturu Maiduguri 30th – September 2014.
2.5     KIDNAPPING
IN THE SOUTH EAST ZONE AAS A CHALLENGE TO ONE NATION HIGHWAYS AND ALSO THREAT
TO OUR ECONOMY
                   Kidnapping
is a social challenge (problem) is the illegal taking of people or person and
keeping him/her as prisoner the purpose of making money by requesting of money
in other to release that person. The history of kidnapping in the south east of
Nigeria. This is more prevailing in Abia and Imo state kidnapping activities
were mainly targeted at prominent indigenous and resident of the state. This
situation was pervasive shortly after 2007 general in kidnapping as a means of
livelihood after election. Intend, confession by those apprehended indicated
that some politician supplied arms to the youths for the purpose of rigging the
2007 general election, unfortunately the arms were not retrieved at the end of
the election. Consequently, kidnapping later turn to a profitable business
mostly among the youth in Abia, Imo, Ebomyi and other state in the zone. Thus,
the increase rate of  kidnapping
activities in Abia state, particularly in Abia executive governor of Abia state
“Chief Theodore Orji in 2005 (Nwogo 2005). Thus, from 2007 to 2010 several for
ransom prominent men in Abia and its environs were kidnapped for ransom and
majority of those kidnapped is as a result of insecurity in our nation highways
99% of those kidnapped or attempted kidnapped took place in major highways, or
the high ways were use as an escape route. Four out of five 1/5 attempted or
succeeded kidnapping that occur in the zone were successful because the
highways were venerable. These adversely affect many business and manufacturing
industries. Immediately companies located in the venerable in venerable state
starts locating to their state Enugu and Anambra state. It is pertinent to note
that prior to this period, many commercial banks were robbed in Abia which is
the commercial nerve of Abia state – kidnapping of traditional rulers and
prominent people were also ramp and worst, still people are kidnapping when
attaching Church service and village meeting (Ajani 2010). This is why partly
as a result of intensive attack launched by armies’ local government of Abia
state (Sampson 2010) reduce the threat drastically.
2.6     CRISES
AS A RESULT OF THREAT TO OUR NATION HIGHWAYS
                   Civil
protest and ethane – religious Chester bancs has constituted a great threat to
the passengers, eruption of series of sectarian crises has led to enormous loss
of livers and properties. The crises have rendered thousands of people homeless
as well as force other survivals to relocate to other cities that are
relatively peaceful. In Kano for example between 1980 and 2004, there were more
than six ethno – religious duster bance. There was this maintainer uprising in
1980. Follow by a religion riot on 30th October 1982. There was
religious riot from14th to 16th October in the year 1981 followed
closely many lives and property. In 1999, there was ethnic dash in Kano between
the Yoruba and Hausa, coupled with the general state of insecurity endangered
of democracy governance of chief Olusegun Obasanjo in the same year there was a
sectarian crises in Kano in 2004 which was a reprisal of the Jos sectarian
crises in the recent post, president election crises that engultal the northern
part of Nigeria on 16th June 2011, carried out the youth mob, in
which innocent people from the southern part of Nigeria were brutally killed
and their property located or burnt luxury bus once against fall under the far
get of religious crises. A particular bus coming from Onitsha to Jos at Banchi
road, Jos was set ablaze, after killing and miming the commuters. In Zaria a
luxury bus from Onitsha to Kano was also burnt by the route. During the period
various transports companies decided to suspect travelling to Kano, Kaduna, Banchi,
Borno, Jos, Sokoto and some selected northern cities to the southern part of
the country transport operation had the umpteen time been victim of problem of
insecurity perpetrated by the unemployment folks such as (“Yadabi” in Kano
state. Alkalare in Gombe state and goes by different names in and around some
northern cities. The economics loose that transport companies suffer as a
result of insecurity in our nation highways during the period of religious  and ethnic inspire violence as well as civil
unrest were huge. It is important to note that during the incessant uprising
the office of a transport services to relocated to cities were political and
religious situation hold prospect for security for lives and properties.
2.6      IMPLEMENTATION OFR NATIONAL SECURITY
POLICY AND THE ECONOMY OF NIGERIA STATE
                    For more than three decades has been
under attacks and even ridicule notorious gangs and person have been committing
crimes against group and groups of individual. The government seems weak,
impotent, baffled and unable to protect the citizen across the country and
especially in places like Jos and Maiduguri. There has been recurrent
ethnic/religious conflict in which citizen are attack on highways as a result
of this crisis (from 2007). All over the world, countries allocated large part
of their account for more than half of all government spending.
                   The
essence of huge budgeting allocation to government institution charge with
responsibilities of national security is not only to protect life and
properties of the citizen but also to create an enabling environment of economy
growth and development. In Nigeria, the implementation of national security
policy is largely the responsibilities of the president national security
adviser (NSA) chief of defence staff (CDS) chief of army staff (COAS) Chief of
Naval staff (CNS) Chief of air staff (CAS). This security operant’s has played
a critical role in making sure security of life and property safe guarded. To
make the frantic affords in making sure our country do not become a tail state.
Abysmal, poverty, hopelessness, joblessness, frustration infrequent level of
corruption, annoyance of paver complacent and introductive security agencies
lack of distichal and corrupt judiciary, proves border convert foreign interest
etc. Have a truthful effect on the unpatrolled bedeviling Nigeria. There is
also crude oil, radical religion cultural angle to the mix. Rather than a fire
trigged approach, Nigeria without daily need in a “coherent and comprehensive
terrorism counter terrorism policy strategy” we can’t fight insecurity and
terrorism by blowing hot and cold. It’s high time we took a definite stand
Nigeria is in need of sweeping national security that embrace and emphasized on
human capital development and state of art infrastructure is also implied to
put in place well articulated programmed, this will dissuack citizen from been
indices lied and to restart to criminality on terrorism in the first place.
Hence route poverty hopelessness, unemployment religious fundamentalism etc
must be aggressively tackled and curtailed through feasible programmed.
Research shows that death penalty via terrorism law will not necessary date
individual or group well beat on committing a crime or atrocities (Don Okereke
2013) the major census of this laugh ways security are illiteracy unemployment,
conflict between government and the people and lack of development in Nigeria
economy.
2.7.1  ILLITERACY
AS A SECURITY CHALLENGES
                    Illiteracy is the major factor
militating against co-existence of the country. Nigeria is a country of over
150 million people and large number is of the population are youth most of whom
are practically or totally uneducated, the illiteracy rate is one of the major
distinctions like Nigeria. Thus every citizen must be accorded ignorance to
undergo formed education. By formed education ignorance and all form of
excessive and barberries will be wiped out from the society. If a citizen well
be given privilege (the sponsorship of affiancing school) he/she response to
civil duties would change for the better (Don Okereke 2013).
2.7.2  UNEMPLOYMENT
AS A SECURITY CHALLENGE
                   Unemployment
as the implies is the state of not been in working class, or not working in
order to cram a living political violence, social security and Sunday crime in
most countries are traceable to high rate of unemployment and the youth who
constitute the able bodies and economies activities group in the civil
population. We can refax that, the increasing spate of sectoring insurrection,
crime and terrorism which we have experienced in the past few years in Nigeria
will not be unconnected with the alarming rate of youth unemployed. While the
few use employed are confronted with so much socio economic pressure from
hardest of defendants, the recent estimated data from national Berau of
statistics should that of over 90 million youth population, 56% are unemployed,
while 7% are under employed and only 35% are employed. However, some factors
have been identified as element that stoke members of youth unemployment in Nigeria.
 
2.8     ETHNO
RELIGIOUS CONFLICT
                   Ethno
religious conflict has been identified as a major source of high –ways security
in Nigeria mostly in Northern part of the country (Ibrahim &Ybujor 2002)
Salan 2010, Ybujor 2010) ethno religious conflict exist when the social
relation between the member of the one ethnic and malty religious society is
characterized by lack of cordiality, mutual suspicious and fear of a tendency
toward violence confrontation to settle grievance as these conflict has also
revolved around who get what and how in the state especially as it concern the
distribution of search resources, power hand, chieftaincy tittles in local
government council, control of market and expensing of religious territories.
These conflicts have resulted in large scale of violence among ethno religious
group in the country (Adayba etal 2012).
2.9     CONFLICT
BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND THE PEOPLE
                   Over
the years, these has been a growing disconnect between the people and the
government. Weather militancy or civilian, have not ties to bridge their chasm
this creating misunderstanding, mistrust and resentment or have a perception
that government does not care for their welfare, they become easy to prey to
constringent force who co-opt incite them to vent their anger on perceived
enemies of the people and some go to the extent of destroying national.
2.10   LACK
OF DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIAN ECONOMY
                   Nigeria
has globally asset acclaimed assets which needs to involve into a state with
powerful strategies influence sponging the entire continent of Africa and far beyond
the question is that Nigeria dose not seen to get its act together to get it
role of destiny for itself and for the rest of Africa. The challenge is to
accelerate the role of development lay using institution of the federal
constitution as a nursery outlook this nation. This will help to mold the
contend ethnic and religious group in to harming and help to removed the
perceived natural distaste among their leader so emergency would not be limited
to champing the cause of the home state, trite or convincing and positively
impact on the entire citizen of the federal republic national building is the
systematic evaluation of the political economies, social and cultural well
being of all the state minded the transcended factors should be the common
citizens of the entire state holder no matter the tribe,, religious economies
or social status as your contribution stipulated. If there is no security then
there is no liberty and if there is no liberty, it’s not meaningful and society
reverts back to the law of the jingle the survival of the fittest and man’s
primary objective of forming a state is defeated.
2.11   THEORETICAL
FRAME WORK
                   The
Stanly adopts the democratic peace thesis and the relative deprivation theory
to explain the security challenges in our nation highways as it affect the
economy of Nigeria states. Thus, the democratic peace thesis assumes that
liberal state do not fight wars against other liberal state. This theory was
first enumerated in a key note articles by Michad Doyle argued that there was a
different in liberate toward non liberal society. From a security point of
view, the recommendation of democracy peace theory is clear. According to this
theory, security largely depends on encouragement liberal institution to
discharge their responsibilities creditably. And a security policy must have
long term the spread to liberalism (Doyle 1998) therefore, the route to peace
is to encourage democratic system, the universal respect for human right and
the development of civil society. But such conclusions depend largely on introit
and robust correction between the democratic nature of a state and peaceful
eradication.
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
3.1      INTRODUCTION
         
This chapter deals with method employed which carries out this work.
This chapter was carried out under the following heading, Research design,
population, sample and sampling, techniques, introduction of date, and the
method of data Analysis. The procedure and the application of methodology of
the research and very important because it promote the answer of research
questions.
3.2     RESEARCH
DESIGN
                    The cross – sectional
survey research design which the she of the questionnaire, was adopted in this
steady using sampling techniques a total of 40 respondents were drawn from
police Headquarters in Kaduna state (Rail – way Quarters, sabon Gari Zaria);
Nigeria. The design was chosen because it provides appropriate methodology for
opinion and perception of human behavior.
3.3     POPULATION OF THE STUDY
                    The population of the study
and sample is drawn from the security personnel in Kaduna Zaria north location
government area (L.G.A) OF Kaduna state. The security personnel form, while due
to time and other constraints, a sample was draw from it. The sample population
was made up of a total of 60 (sixty) personnel from the study.
3.4
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

          For the purpose of this study a
random sampling method was used in arriving at the sample, also for distracting
questionnaire to get appropriate date in other to complete the research in a
tabular form. Out of 50 personal in the organization. Sample of 50 were served
as a study participant using the sampling techniques of respondent and
responses received. Sample percentage was also used to analysis the sampling
method.
3.5
    METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
–        
Primary Data
–        
Secondary Data
The
primary data are data collected at the first hand by the research. The method
used in collecting the data include; personal interview conducted with the
(DPO), and some other security personal through questionnaire administration.
Secondary
data, they are data not gathered purposely for this study sources of this were
record from (DPO) and also was not collected purposely for the study at hand,
but the research utillized these because the data provide were related to the
topic under the study
3.6    METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
           To determine the
method of data analysis, simple percentage use in analysis, the data is the
direct method. I used to find out the security challenges in the high-ways of
Nigeria as it effect the economy with particular attention in Zaria (Sabon Gari
local government area) Kaduna state
The Problem of Data Collection.
   The challenges of security in our highways
today is wide field of study which need many years and adequate resources to
study around the global world. Despite the completion of this work a lot of problems
were encounter in the process of collecting data about the research, major
problem among them is lack of finance to visit my case study constantly and my
case study is far from my school, semester is on again. So I just make a few
visitation as a result because of the distance from my school to my case study.
It takes 14 to 15 hour from my school to my case study. Finally I found another
major construction of data for the research work.
     
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA
PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1      DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
The
impact of security in the high-way of Nigeria with speed special attention to
Zaria (Sabon Gari Local Government Area) Kaduna state will discuss and based on
data collected through personal interview with questionnaire. Set of (60)
copies were returned. The questionnaire was distributed randomly. A personal
interview was also conducted with (DPO) in other to follow up question to
assertion the contribution of information. The data collected will be presented
and analyzed in tabular form. Analysis and interpretation of data will be made.
The table will be divided into three columns for respond and rows will be
created when necessary. The information presented will enable the work
successful, the answer obtain from the questionnaire is hereby presented below
4.1.1   Distribution Of Respondent Base On Age                
Respondent
No Of Respondent
% of Respondent
12 – 21 years
              2
              4
22 – 31 Years
             10
            20
32 – 41 Years
             20
            40
42 and above
             18
            36
Total
            
50
           100
The
above table reveal two (2) respondent representing 4% of the population sample
are between the age limit of 12 – 21 years, ten (10) respondent representing
20% are between the age limit of 22 – 31 years, twenty (20) respondent
representing 40% are between the age limit 32 – 41 years while the remaining
eighteen (18) respondent representing 36% are between 42 years and above.
4.1.2   Distribution of Respondent Based On Gender
Response
No. of Respondent
% of Respondent
Male
25
50
Female
25
50
Total
50
100
Source:
Field survey 2016
            The above table that reveal twenty
five (25) respondent representing 50% are the population sample are made while
the remaining (25) respondent, representing 50% are female.
4.1.3 Distribution of Respondent
Base on Academy Qualifications.
Response
No. of Respondent
% of Respondent
SSCE/GCE
4
8
ND/NCE
16
32
HND/BSC
19
38
Masters and above
11
22
Total
20
100
 Source: Field Survey 2016
  The above take discloses that four (4)
respondent representing 88% of the population sample has SSCE as their highest
qualification, sixteen (16) respondent representing 32% has ND NCE as their
qualification nineteen (19) respondent representing 38% has HND/BSC as their
highest qualification while the remaining (11) respondent representing 22% of
the population sample has master degree and above as their qualification.
4.1.4 Would Lack Of Security Cause Security Threat In Our Nation Highway
Response
No of Respondent
% of Respondent
Strongly agreed 
30
60
Agreed
10
20
Strongly disagreed 
7
14
Disagreed 
3
6
Total
50
100
Source:
Field Survey 2016
From
the above table thirty (30) respondent representing 60% o the population
sample, strongly agreed that insecurity will cause security threat in our
nation high way 10 respondents representing 20% agreed, 7 respondents
representing 14% strongly disagreed, 7 respondents representing 14% strongly
disagreed with disagreed with the fact , white 3 respondent representing 6% of
the population disagreed that lack of.
4.1.5  Would Unemployment Cause Security Threat In Our Nation Highway That
Could Lead To Negative Effect To The Economy.
Response
No of Respondent
% of Respondent
Strongly agreed 
25
50
Agreed
15
30
Partial agreed 
5
10
Disagreed 
5
10
Total
50
100
Source:
Field Survey 2016
The
above table reveals that twenty-five, (25) respondent representing 50% of the
population sample, strongly agreed that unemployment will cause security threat
in our nation highway. And also have a direct effect to the economy (15)
respondent representing 30% agreed (5) respondent representing 10% partially
disagreed while the remaining (5) respondent representing 10% disagreed with the
view.
4.1.6 Has Political Issue Cause Security Threat in Our Nation High Way
Response
No of Respondent
% of Respondent
Strongly agreed 
20
40
Agreed
15
30
Strongly disagreed 
10
20
Disagreed 
5
10
Total
50
100
Source:
Field Survey 2016
  The above table reveal that (20) respondent
represent 40% of the population the strongly agreed that political issues has
cause security threat in our nation highway while (15) respondent representing
30% of the population agreed, (10) responding representing 20% of the population
strongly disagree while the remaining responding representing 10% of the
population disagreed with the views.
4.1.7  The Role Nigeria Police Force Playing Yielding Result
Response
No of Respondent
% of Respondent
YES
37
74
NO
6
12
UNDECIDE
7
14
Total
50
100



CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1     SUMMARY
OF FINDING.
          It
is listed that Nigerian had witness a drastic security challenges in the past
few years. The challenges are in various form communal, religious, militancy
terrorism am robbery and kidnapping. This conflict has really caused the broken
of Nigeria economy today foreign investor are afraid of investing in Nigeria
because of threat in the country. Some see the predominant as a calculated
attempt by the international community to divide the country.  While others believe it is the phantom
sectarian violence that is responsible. But we should not fold our hands and
leave the affairs of this country to continue moving in the negative direction.
Resigning to fact has never been a solution to do any form of security
challenges so that we will have a better country to live, a country where peace
and tranquility will reign and where the potently will call a fatherly.
Base
on the discussion of funding in chapter four, funding of the research can
therefore be summarized as follow.
1.       It
was also discovered that the measure the Nigeria police force (NPF) is putting
is yielding result.
2.       It
is also reveal that if there is employment to youth, the country will not face
serious security challenges because an idle man is the devil work shop.
3.       The
lack of proper security planning is a threat to our nation highways and our
economy.
       Finally,
there is the need for collective security arrangement by federal, state and
local government in Nigeria.  This
arrangement should produce a committee at villages. Community, local, state and
federal levels with the responsibility of providing sensitive security
information for security agencies at their areas of operation. This will
ultimately assist in identifying criminal, their sponsor and hideout in Nigeria.
5.2     CONCLUSION
          Nigeria’s security concern and threat
perception emanated from many quarters. Over the years, the inability of the
government to address the cause, dissatisfaction, Nigeria and agitation among
various group in country resulted to serious security challenges confronting
the contemporary Nigeria. This ugly situation has not only denied the Nigeria
government enormous revenues, infrastructural decay, poor health status, and
poor image of Nigeria at regional and global scene, low participation of
investor to peaceful state in Nigeria, among others. Those problems are
traceable to internal security challenges in Nigeria occasioned by the
activities of militants in Niger-Delta region, kidnapping in the South-East,
the Islamic extremist of Boko Haram in North East, Kaduna crisis (2011), armed
robbery in many part of the country, bunkering of Nigeria’s oil on let by saboteurs,
among others. In consideration of the consideration of the consequences of this
challenges on the economy of the Nigerian state and to save the country from
the brink of total collapse, the needs for good governance, justice, equality
and tolerance among ethnic nationalities as well as religious group in Nigeria,
is advocated and should be rigorously pursued by both the government and the
people.
5.3     RECOMMENDATION.
1.       Government
should be able to equip our labour enforcement agent in such a way that they
can effectively police our units.
2.       The
road marshals, traffic inspects officers, the police and soldiers, who mount
illegal road blocks in order to extort money from road users should be
paralyzed and persecuted or even sacked the force when needed.
3.       The government should be more proactive
in the implementation of amnesty programmed designed for Niger Delta Militant
to avoid a situation where these repentant militant would not go back to this
criminal activities that has a direct bearing on the high ways such as Boko
Haram, Armed Robbery kidnapping and religion crisis etc.
4.       The
federal government should formulate and effectively implement policies and
programs capable of addressing the not cause of insecurity in Nigeria such as
poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation death of in fracture facities,
unemployment among others.
5.       The
federal government should re-organize the country’s intelligence system and a
capable and more proactive security apparition in Nigeria. This will add more
values in docking incessant bombing, robbery, kidnapping and violence and
crimes crisis by hoodlum all over the Nigeria.
6.       The
Nigeria should ensure full patrol on Nigeria highways stem the tide menace of
the small be benefit as well rescues accident victims. The motorize patrol
pests all over the highways to give response to distress calls.
7.       The
federal government should phase out the national poverty eradication programmed
(NPEP) and establish a more viable and result oriented agency capable of
addressing the problem of object poverty among large population of Nigeria,
particularly those residing resuscitate in the rural areas. The government
should resuscitate the relational doctorate of employment (NDE) and reposition
agricultural sector so as to play active role in job creation for Nigeria
youth.
8.       The
issues of citizenship in who is qualified to be and indigene of a particular
community or state should be urgently reviewed by the federal government. This
is important because Nigeria who have lived up to 20 years in a given community
should not be regarded and treated as a non indigene in area this step will
ultimately reduce discrimination and crisis in many parts of Nigeria like Jos,
the Plateau State capital and some part of Kaduna, Benue, Nasarawa, Kogi and
some part of Adamawa State.
9.       The
federal, state and local government should be more committed to enhance the
quality and standard of education in Nigeria. The three level of government in
Nigeria should collaborate to ensure free education at youths who engage in
numerous violence crime against the government and the citizen.
5.4     SUGGESTION
FOR FURTHER STUDIES
                   In
consonance with the scope and limitation of study in chapter one, it is obvious
that a single research study can’t be able to visualize all areas of security
challenges in Nigeria. Ho ever, further areas of study suggested, include the
following.
1.       Implement
security management studies in school curriculum at primary, secondary and
tertiary level in Nigeria. This will enable Nigeria youth to appreciate the
importance of peace and security in a secular state like Nigeria.
2.       Reorganize
the country intelligence system and building a capable and more proactive
security apparatus in Nigeria.
3.       The
effect of insecurity to our high – ways
  REFERENCES     
v
Abubabar A. (February 21, 2005) The
challenges of security in Nigeria, News 
watch magazine, p.10  
v
Adebayo A.A, I (December 20, 2010)
Nigeria growing kidnapped industry. Daily independence Newspaper P.14
v
Aderoyin, P.C (2008) Oil and the
probability of rebel participating among youth in Niger Delta of Nigeria
journal of peace research, 45 (4), 539-555
v
Aghebo and Oarhe O (2009) When the
panacea became the problem. The Niger Delta question and the federal solution
in Nigeria. Nigeria  journal of politics
and public policy 5 (1&2), 147-167
v
Agani, C (October 2, 2010). Abia place5
million ransoms or suspected kidnappers. This day newspaper, P3
v
Akimrefon, D and Oke, G (August 20,
2007) Why insecurity strategy and Nigeria Voice newspaper.
v
Amiaza, E. (October 8, 2009) 90 years
old royal father kidnapped in Delta, vanguard newspaper, P11 (October 8, 2009).
v
 JTF arrests 10 suspected militants, crude oil
thieves in Delta State vanguard P.10
v
Ameh, j (September 4, 2008) Nigeria
under security threat from Jetfis Repsthe, punch newspaper, P.9
v
Anosike, P (October 6, 2010) chaneze
tasks FG on security.
v
Daily sun newspaper, P.8, Asun, J.B.
(2007) culture and conflict in Bassey, Co and Onitsha, O.O (eds) conflict
resolution, identify crisis and development in Africa Nigeria Transport
Management and administration in Nigeria published by Bimco publisher.
v
Ohiroale’s (1996). “A re-visit to the
port reform Era” A paper present and delivered on the 3rd national
conference of the Nigeria PP 121-130 Lagos Mat house presses.
v
 Awowole, B (October 6, 2010) Bomb l=blast
victim to lose one eye daily sun, P 6.
v
Bassey C.O (2007). Epidemiology of
conflict and violence in Nigeria, in Bassey, C.O and Onitsha, (Eds). Conflict
resolution  identify crisis and development
in Africa PP. 141-158 Lagos mat house press (2007). The nexus of could life and
development crisis Africa.
           QUESTIONNAIRE
       The
questionnaire is designed to get information in security challenges in our
nation high – ways as it affect the economy.
    Please
you are require to thick X or V in the appropriate box provided.
Ø
SECTION
A: PERSONAL DATA
1. Sex:
Male (  ) Female (  )
2. Age
group 18 – 30 yrs (  ) 31 – 46 yrs (  ) 47 and above (  )
3. Qualification:
SSCE/ND/NCEC (  ) HND/BSC (  ) others ( 
)
Ø
SECTION
B: QUESTIONS
1. Would
lack of security cause security threat in our nation highways Yes/No
2. Would unemployment cause security threat in our
nation highways that could lead to negative effect to the economy? Yes/No
3. The role of Nigeria police force (NPF) yielding
result Yes/No
4. Re – organizing the country’s intelligence
system and building a capable and more proactive security apparatus in Nigeria
will it help to address the issue of bombing, robbery, kidnapping Yes/No
5. Has political issue cause security threat in
our nation highways Yes/No         
6. Has militancy enhance political opportunity in
the Niger Delta region. Yes/No
7. With the used of security gadget, will it help
to minimize security challenges in Nigeria Yes/No
8. Has the three levels of government in Nigeria
collaborate to ensure free education at all level Yes/No
9. The federal, state and local government are
they more committed to enhance the quality and standard of education in Nigeria
Yes/No
10 Law enforcement Agency
are there to add more value in checking incessant bombings,    robbery, kidnapping and violence
crime/crises by hoodlums all over Nigeria Yes/No
11.
Is western education the major problem of Boko Haram crisis Yes/No
12.
Will the president Amnesty programmed succeeded in the problem of  Boko Haram           is
not address Yes/No
13.
Does the bombing in Churches in Kano, Kaduna, Niger, Bauchi, Adamawa and          Abuja in 2011 reduce Nigeria
population Yes/No
14.
Have government address environment problem, poverty, unemployment lack of
      Base amenities in Nigeria Yes/No
15.
Is insecurity the major problem in Nigeria highways Yes/No
16.
The crisis in the North is limited to socio political marginalization alone Yes
or No
17.
Have government provide solution to kidnapping and hostage taking of oil
workers
      in Nigeria Delta region Yes/No            
           
           
         
                     

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