Introduction: a typical rib has a head, neck, tubercle and shaft. The third to the ninth ribs are typical.
Head: the head of a typical rib is wedge-shaped and has two articular facets for articulation with its own vertebra and the vertebra superior to it.
Neck: this is a strong, thick and flattened part of the rib. It’s located between the head and the tubercle. The neck lies anterior to the transverse process of the corresponding vertebra. The superior border is round
Tubercle: this is on the posterior surface at the junction of the neck and shaft. It has two facets; medial and lateral. The medial facet is covered with hyaline cartilage and articulates with the corresponding vertebra. The lateral facet is smooth and receives the costotransverse ligament from the tip of its own transverse process.
Shaft (body): the shaft of a rib is thin and curved. It forms the largest part of the rib. It has external and internal surfaces, thick rounded superior borders and thin sharp inferior borders. The point of greatest curvature of the shaft is Called the angle of the rib. The costal groove and flange formed by the inferior border of the rib protect the intercostal nerves and vessels that accompany the ribs.
Clinical correlates: fractured ribs can be caused by accidents. The broken ends may be driven inward and injure the internal organs