Introduction: the elbow joint is a synovial joint of the hinge variety. It is formed where the distal end of the humerus articulates with the proximal ends of the radius and the ulna.
1. Humeroulnar articulation
2. Humeroradial articulation
3. The proximal radioulnar joint
Capsule: the capsule of the elbow joint is attached to the proximal margins of the coronoid and radial fossae anteriorly, to the superior limit of the olecranon fossa posteriorly and distally to the margin of the trochlea notch.
Synovial membrane: this lines the fibrous capsule and is reflected onto the humerus lining the coronoid and radial fossae anteriorly and the olecranon fossa posteriorly.
Blood supply: blood supply to the elbow joint is by the cubital anastomosis formed by collateral branches of the brachial recurrent branches of the radial and ulnar arteries.
Nerve supply: by musculocutaneus, median, radial and ulnar nerves.
Movement: the elbow joint permits flexion, and extension mainly and also pronation and supination.
Stability: the joint is quite stable. It is strengthened by very strong radial and ulnar collateral ligaments.
Clinical correlates:
1. Posterior dislocation of the elbow joint may occur as a result of the indirect violent fall on the hand.
2. As the capsule is weak anteriorly and posteriorly it will be distended by an effusion at this sites.