– Asexual reproduction in plants, where part of the body becomes detached and develops into a new self-supporting plant occurs naturally without intervention of man.
– adaptation for perpetuation of species when conditions may be employed
– many parts of the plants e.g root, stems and leaves may be employed.
Runners/stolon in straw berry and Bermuda grass
– send out horizontal above ground side branches (runners/stolon)
– these grow from one of the lower axillary buds of parent plant
– creep along the ground surface
– at its nodes, small axillary buds develop root and shoot and grow into new plants
Rhizomes e.g in canna lily, sansevierias, ginger, spear grass
Underground horizontal stems
– fleshy food storage organs
– bear scale leaves and adventious roots
– produce upright leafy branches with terminal inflorescence at node maintaining regular interval
Bulbs (e.g garlic, onion)
– swollen buds in which food is stored in fleshy thick leaves
– with a short vertical stem, with at least one central terminal bud
– apical and axillary buds situated among the leaves develop into new plants
– food stored supports growth of new buds
– stem tubers e.g Irish potato, yam
– enlarged terminal portion of slender rhizomes
– tuber has nodes, internodes, lateral buds and terminal buds
– buds are ‘eyes’ on tubers
– can sprout to form new shoots
Root tubers e.g carrot, sweet potato, cassava
–  storage organ may be formed from main tap root or lateral (adventitious) root
– buds on tuber also sprout to form new plants
Corms e.g cocoyam, gladiolus
– A shortened, vertical, thickened underground stem
-consists of a shoot, with stored food
– small buds occur in axils of leaves
– new corm may develop from axillary buds or short underground stems may form and give rise to single small corn
– others may include, bulbils, off sets, suckers, adventitious buds, fragmentation, budding, gemmae cups.