Introduction: the brachial artery provides the main arterial supply to the arm. It begins at the inferior border of the trees major muscles as the continuation of the axillary artery.
Course: it runs inferiorly on the medial side of the biceps brachii muscle. At first it lies medial and then anterior to the humerus. It lies anterior to the triceps and brachiocephalis muscles.
At the middle of the arm the median nerve crosses anterior to the artery. In the cubital fossa it is protected by the bicipital aponeurosis.
Surface marking for the brachial artery is along a line from the medial bicipital groove posterior to  coracobrachialis to the middle of the cubital fossa at a point level with the neck of the radius.
A. The profunda brachii artery
B. The nutrient humeral artery
C. The superior ulnar collateral artery
D. The inferior ulnar collateral artery
The brachial artery bifurcates into radial and ulnar arteries 2.5cm distal to the elbows crease
Clinical correlates:
1. Arterial blood pressure can be measured using the brachial artery.
2. Occlusion of the brachial artery may cause ischemia of the deep flexor muscles of the forearm.
3. Compression of the brachial artery can be produced in almost its entire length to control hemorrhage.