Education is believed to be the bedrock of any country’s
development. It is considered as the cornerstone for meaningful and sustainable
growth development and achievement in art, science and technology.

What Is Philosophy?

The intellectual endeavour of various schools of thought to
understand the term “philosophy” has never been an easy task. According to Akinpelu
(2005) Plato (427 BC-347 BC) and other disciples of Socrates (470
BC-399 BC) corroborated in their writing that, “Socrates preferred not to call
his students wise men”. He rather called them by a more modest and apropos
title, namely: “lovers of wisdom.” This lends much credence to the etymology of
the word “philosophy”, which is coined from two Greek words: Philo (love) and
Sophia (wisdom or knowledge). The combination of the two Greek words resulted
in the term, Philosophia, meaning love of wisdom. Philosophic wisdom is an
intellectual engagement which enables a man, to a large extent assess his
ideals as well as his life aspirations. It makes him understand the rationale
for accepting certain ideals in life and why he ought to accept them in the
first place.
A nation’s policy on education is government’s way of
realizing that part of the national goals which can achieve, using education as
a tool. No policy on education, however, can be formulated without first
identifying the overall philosophy and goals of the

2. The overall philosophy of Nigeria is to:
(a) live in unity and harmony as one indivisible, indissoluble, democratic and
sovereign nation founded on the principal of freedom, equally and justice;
Promote inter-African solidarity and world peace through understanding.

3 The five main national goals of Nigeria, which have been endorsed as the necessary
foundation for the National Policy on education, are the building of;-
(a) a free and, democratic society;
(b) a just egalitarian society;
(c) a united, strong and self-reliant nations;
(d) a great and dynamic economy;
(e) a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens.

4. In Nigeria’s philosophy of Education, we believe that:-
education is an instrument for national development, and the interaction of
persons and ideas are all aspects of education;
(a) education fosters the worth development of the individual, for each
individual’s sake, and for general development of the society
(b) the training of the mind in the understanding of the world around;
(c) the acquisition of appropriate skills and competencies as equipment for the
individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society.

5. In consequence, the quality of instruction at all levels
has to be oriented towards inculcating the following value;
(a) respect for the worth and dignity of the individual;
(b) faith in man’s ability to make rational decisions;
(c) moral and spiritual principle in inter-personal and human relations
(d) shared responsibility for the common good of society;
(e) promotion of the physical, emotional and psychological development of all
(f) acquisition of competencies necessary for self-reliance.

6. In order to realize fully the potentials of the contributions of education
to the achievement of these goals and values, all other agencies will operate
in concert with education. To that end, Government shall take various measures
to implement the policy;

(a) education shall continue to be highly rated in the national development
plans because education is the most important instrument of charge; any
fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society has to
be preceded by education;
(b) life-long education shall be the basis of the nation’s educational policy;
(c) education and training facilities shall continue to be expanded in response
to social needs and made progressively accessible to afford the individual a
far more diversified and flexible choice;
(d) educational activities shall be centered on the leaner for maximum
self-development and self-fulfillment;
(e) Universal Basic education in a variety of forms; depending on needs and
possibilities, shall be provided for all citizens;
(f) Efforts shall be made to relate education to overall community needs;
(g) Educational assessment and evaluation shall be liberalized by their being
based in part on continuous assessment of the progress of the individual;
(h) Modern education techniques shall be increasingly used and improved upon at
all levels of the education system;
(i) The education system shall be structured to develop the practice of
self-learning. Government shall in this regard continue to encourage the
establishment of Young Readers Clubs in schools
(j) At any stage of the education process after junior secondary education, an
individual shall be able to choose between continuing full-time studies,
combining work with study, or embanking on full-time employment work with
study, or embarking on full-time employment without excluding prospect of
resuming studies later on;
(k) Opportunity shall continue to be made for made for religious instruction; no
child will be forced to accept any religious instruction which is contrary to
the wishes of his or her parents; and
(l) Physical and health education shall be emphasized at all levels of the
education system.

7. The importance of language:-
Government appreciates the importance of language as a means of promoting
social interaction and national cohesion; preserving cultures. Thus every child
shall learn the language of the immediate environment. Furthermore, in the
interest of national unity it is expedient that every child shall require to
learn one of the three Nigeria languages: Hausa, Igbo Yoruba.
(a) For smooth interaction with our neighbours, it is desirable for every
Nigeria to speak French. Accordingly, French shall be compulsory in primary and
Junior Secondary Schools but Non- Vocational Elective at the senior Secondary

An effective education system is guided by set goals and
objectives. The success of such a system relies on the interrelationship
between the National goals of education, secondary level objectives, general
and specific objectives of a subject.
National goals of education are the general principles and
statements which spell out the aspiration of a nation to be realised through
education. They give directions to a set of detailed intentions for the present
and the future. From the National goals of education, objectives for the
different levels are drawn. The level objectives are used to determine the
desired knowledge, skills and attitude that should be acquired at the end of
the course.
The general objectives of Life Skills Education are derived
from the Secondary level objectives. These objectives are relevant and
therefore achievable within the subject. Specific objectives are derived from
the general objectives. They give guidance on how knowledge, skills and
attitudes pertaining to the content are to be achieved. The specific objectives
are quite explicit, operational, time bound and quantifiable
2. Identify the types of education in