Sovereignty can be defined as the supreme
power in a state. It is the power in a state in which
there is no power that is above.
Sovereignty can be political, legal,
external, De jure, Defacto, and internal. Political
sovereignty belongs to the electorates; political sovereignty is the-power the people have to elect those who will govern
them. Legal sovereignty refers to the existence of some institutions like courts, executive and legislature
in a state that carry out essential
functions. External sovereignty is indicative of the fact that a state can take decisions on her own without interference from other states. This is to state
that the country is independent from
the control of other states.
Internal sovereignty is the state’s power to
regulate activities within the
state geographical area. Defacto sovereignty refers to a situation where a person or group of persons are able to restore and establish rule after a successful revolution.
On the other hand, De jure sovereignty
refers to a power situation where the people
accept as a matter of principle the rules of the sovereignty and they are loyal as a matter of necessity to
the De jure sovereign.
The features of Sovereignty include
absoluteness, comprehensiveness, indivisibility
and inalienability.

The Limitations on the sovereignty of a state are:

  1. Lack of Capability of a
    Sovereign to protect her.citizens can lead to the sovereign
    been disobeyed. This is quite pertinent in view of the fact that demand for
    protection from citizenry is quite important in the modern days of increasing
    social vices and break down of normalcy.
  2.  Membership of international organization by a
    particular state can place a limit on the
    exercise of sovereignty. Such organization
    like the United Nations organization,The Commonwealth of Nations and the organization of African Unity have rules that must be obeyed and failure
    to do this may attract sanction from
    the appropriate organization. Nigeria
    was suspended from the commonwealth of Nations as a result of her intransigence over the execution of the ‘Ogoni 9’.
  3.  The Military capability of a
    state can place a limit on her sovereignty. A very weak state
    military is at the mercy of a powerful state. The United States
    and the allied force violated the sovereignty of Iraq when they bombarded the
    Country as a result of Iraqi violation of Kuwaiti
    Sovereignty.
  4.  Existence of International laws can also limit the
    Sovereignty of a state. A nation state must operate
    within the ambit of international law. The violation of such law may lead to a negative action on the offending
    states. For example, Libya went beyond her territorial waters in the mediteranean Sea and this led to the bombardment of
    Benglazi and Tripoli by the United States of American when
    Ronald Regan was still the President of the U. S.
  5.  Economic aids from the developed
    Countries to the less developed ones may lead to foreign control of the
    recipient’s economy and politics. Kenya was forced to
    adopt a multi party state when the country was
    threatened by aid donors that failure to do that will lead to withdrawal of aids.
  6. World opinion on an issue may
    affect the external sovereignty of a state. The Commutal of death
    sentence on Diya and other people accused of ploting
    to overthrow the notorious Abacha military regime to various
    jail term was largely influenced by world opinion on the matter.
  7. Multinational
    Corporations can also undermine the sovereignty of a state. Some
    multinational corporations are so big and rich that they possess the
    resources to dominate and control the machinery of
    state.” It was commonly reported that ITT greatly contributed to the
    overthrow of the government of Salvador Allende in Chile.