The botanical name of Betelvine is Piper betel; it belongs to family Piperaceae

Varieties: Karpurakodi, Kallarkodi, Revesi, Karpuri and SGM 1.

Soil and climate: Well drained fertile clay loams are suitable. It does not tolerate saline and alkaline conditions. Betelvines require a cool shade, considerable humidity and regular supply of moisture in the soil.

Seeds and sowing: The vines are propagated by terminal stem cutting or setts about 30 - 45cm long. Setts obtained from the top portions of the vines are easy to root and hence best for planting. Number of setts 1,00,000/ha. Setts with vigorous apical buds and nodal adventitious roots are selected and planted at the base of the live supports, which are to be planted 4 to 5 months earlier.

Season: November - December and January - February.

Preparation of field: The field is prepared to a fine tilth and beds of 2 m wide are formed to a convenient length. Provide drainage trenches of 0.5 m width by 0.5 m depth in between two adjoining beds. Plant the seeds of the live supports i.e. Agathi (Sesbania grandiflora) in long
rows. About 750 banana suckers are planted at the edges of the beds, which are used, for tying the vines on the live support and for packing the betel leaf. When the Agathi supports grow to a
height about 4 m they are topped. The crop is planted in two rows in beds of 180 cm width on Agathi plants with a spacing of 45 cm between plants in the row.

Irrigation: Irrigate the field immediately after planting and afterwards once in a week.

Aftercultivation
Training of the live Standards: Before the establishment of vines the side branches of Agathi trees upto a height of 2 m are removed for early creeping of the vines.
Training of the vines: Training is done by fixing the vine at intervals of 15 to 20 cm along the standards loosely with the help of banana fibre. Training is done every 15 - 20 days depending upon the growth of vines.
Lowering of vines: Under normal cultivation, the vines grow to height of 3 m in one year period.
When they reach this height their vigour to produce normal size leaf are reduced and they need rejuvenation by lowering during March - April. After the vine is lowered a number of tillers spring up from the nodes at the bends of the coiled vines at the ground level and produce many primary
vines. After each lowering irrigation should be given.

Manuring: Apply 150 kg N/ha/year through Neem cake (75 kg N) and Urea (75 kg N) and 100 kg P2 O5 through Super phosphate and 30 kg Muriate of potash in three split doses first at 15 days after lifting the vines and second and third dose at 40 - 45 days intervals. Apply on beds
shade dried neem leaf or Calotrophis leaves at 2 t/ha and cover it with mud (2 t in 2 split doses).

Plant protection against Pests
Scale insects: Select scale-free seed vines. Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2 ml/lit when one or two scales are noticed on the basal portion of the stem/leaves. Direct the spray solution to the basal portion of the vines. Spray NSKE 5 % or malathion 50 EC 1 ml/lit.
Mites (Sevvattai): Spray wettable sulphur 50 WP @ 1 g/lit or dicofol 18.5 EC 0.5 ml/lit.
Sooty mould (Aphids): To control aphids spray chlorpyriphos at 2 ml/lit on Agathi leaves. Clip off excess Agathi leaves.
Mealy bugs: Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC at 2 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC 2ml/lit. Concentrate the spray towards the collar region.
Nematode: Application of Neem cake at 1 t/ha or chopped and shade dried Calotrophis leaves at 2.5 t/ha to soil, after lowering the vines.

Diseases
Phytophthora Wilt:
Integrated method for the management of Phytophthora wilt.
Select well matured (more than 1 year old) seed vines free from pest and diseases.
Soak the seed vines for about 30 minutes in Streptocyline 500 ppm or Bordeaux mixture 0.5 %.
Apply 150 kg N/ha/year through Neem cake (75 kg N) and Urea (75 kg N) and 100 kg P2 O5 through Super phosphate and 30 kg Muriate of potash in 3 split doses first at 15 days after lifting the vines and second and third dose at 40 - 45 days intervals. Apply on beds, shade dried neem
leaf or Calotrophis leaves at 2 t/ha and cover it with mud (2 t in 2 split doses).
Drench Bordeaux mixture 0.25% in basins formed around the vine at monthly intervals starting from October – January, three times soil drench and six times spray from June - July.
During winter season avoid frequent irrigation.
Remove the affected vines away from the garden and burn them.
Application of Alliette 3 g/lit 4 times at monthly intervals.
Application of Trichoderma viride @ 5 g/vine.
Bacterial leaf spot, blight and bacterial stem rot: Spray Streptocycline 400 ppm + Bordeaux mixture 0.25% when the first disease symptoms appear. Continue spraying at 20 days intervals.
Always spray the chemical after plucking the leaves.
Anthracnose (Theechal): Spray 0.2% Ziram or 0.5% Bordeaux mixture after plucking the leaves after the first appearance of the symptom. The variety Karpoori is susceptible to the disease.
Powdery mildew: Spray 0.2% Wettable sulphur after plucking the leaves.

Harvest: It depends upon the growth of the vines and market condition. Once harvesting starts it continues almost every day.
Yield: 75 to 100 lakh leaves/ha/year.