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General principles of mango production and planting procedures

The botanical name of Mango is Mangifera indica L.; It belongs to the family Anacardiaceae

Varieties of mango

Neelum, Bangalora, Alphonso, Rumani, Banganapalli, Kalepad, Peter, PKM 1, PKM
2, Sendura, Jahangir, Mulgoa, Himayuddin, Paiyur 1, Mallika, Amrapali and Salem Bangalora, Arka Anmol, Arka Aruna, Arka Neelkiran, Arka Puneeth.
Processing varieties : Alphonso, Banganapalli, Totapuri
Export Variety : Alphonso , Banganapalli, Sendura

Planting procedures 

Soil and climate: Red loamy soil with good drainage is preferable. pH range 6.5 to 8.
Season of planting: July to December.
Planting material: Use approach or soft wood grafts.
Field preparation: Dig pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m. Fill in with topsoil mixed with 10 kg of FYM and 100 g of Lindane 1.3% dust per pit.
Planting: Plant grafts in the centre of pit with ball of earth intact, water and stake. The graft union must be 15 cm above the ground level.
Spacing: Spacing 7 to 10 m either way, adopt high density planting (10 x 5 m) for Alphonso, Banganapalli, Mallika, etc. for higher productivity.
Irrigation: Regular watering till establishment.
Intercropping: Short duration crops like legumes, vegetables, groundnut etc. can be raised during pre- bearing age.
Manures and fertilizers may be applied during September – October, 45 – 90 cm away from the trunk upto the peripheral leaf drip and incorporated.

Training and pruning: Rootstock sprouts and low lying branches have to be removed. Remove overlapping, intercrossing, diseased, dried and weak branches in old trees to get good sunlight
and aeration. For the internal branches, pruning may be done during August – September, once in three years. Flowering should not be allowed upto three years. Among crowded terminal shoots, weak shoots are trimmed to retain two healthy shoots during August-September annually.

Growth regulators: Spray NAA @ 20 ppm at flowering to increase the fruit retention. During February 0.5% Urea (5 g/lit.) or 1% Potassium Nitrate (10g/lit.) may be sprayed to induce flowering, if trees do not flower by that time. Spray 2% KNO3
 at mustard size to increase fruit set and
retention of fruits.
Apply Paclobutrazol @ 10 g a.i. / full bearing tree during first fortnight of September to get maximum number of fruits and yield during off years.

Mango Plant Protection From pests

Hopper: Spray two rounds of acephate 75 SP@ 1g/lit or phosalone 35 EC@ 1.5 ml/lit or carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit or phosphamidon 40SL 2 ml/lit of water. First at the time of panicle emergence and the second two weeks after first spray. Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/lit may be sprayed after spraying
carbaryl to avoid mite resurgence. Neem oil 5 ml/lit of water can be mixed with any insecticides for the control of hopper and shoot webber.
Leaf galls and Aphids: Dimethoate or methyl demeton 2 ml/lit.
Flower Webber: Phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit
Nut Weevil: Fenthion 100 EC 1ml/lit spray during marble stage and second spray 15 days after the first spray.
Mealy bug: Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2.5ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.5ml/lit.
Band the trees with 20 cm wide 400 gauge polythene sheets
Release of Australian ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10/tree
Stem borer: Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml in 25 cm² per tree soaked in absorbent cotton when the trees are not in bearing stage.
Application of carbofuran 3 G 5g per bore hole and plugging with mud after mechanically removing or killing the grub by introducing a needle or wire.
Fruit fly: Fenthion 1 ml/lit or malathion 2 ml/lit. Plough the inter spaces to expose pupae. Prepare bait with methyl eugenol 1% solution mixed with malathion 0.1%. Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them in 25 different places in one hectare between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m. Collect and destroy the fallen fruits.

Diseases of mango

Powdery mildew: Apply Sulphur dust (350 mesh) in the early morning to protect new flush or spray Wettable sulphur 0.2% or Tridemorph 0.05%.
Anthracnose and stalk end-rot: Spray Mancozeb 2g/lit or Carbendazim 1g/lit or Thiophanate methyl 1g/lit or Chlorothalonil 2g/lit as pre-harvest spray, 3 times at 15 days interval.
Sooty mould: Spray phosphamidon 40 SL @ 2 ml/ litre + Maida 5% (1 kg Maida or starch) boiled with 1 lit of water and diluted to 20 litres. Avoid spraying during cloudy weather.

Harvest Season: March to June.
Harvest: Yield varies with varieties and spacing adopted.
8 – 10 t/ha upto 15 years.
15 – 20 t/ha from 15 – 20 years.
Post Harvest treatment: Dip the fruits in 520  ± 10 C hot water immediately after harvest for 5 minutes followed by 8% plant wax (Fruitox or Waxol) to reduce anthracnose disease in mango during storage. Two pre-harvest sprays of 0.20% Mancozeb (2.0 g/lit) will also reduce the
incidence.

Waiting Period: Methyl demeton 0.05% 14 days
Fenthion 0.05% - 14 days
Quinalphos 0.05% - 12 days
Lindane 300 g a.i./ha - 2 days

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