Medicinal dioscorea production techniques and processes

 The botanical name of Medicinal Dioscorea is Dioscorea floribunda Mart and Gal.; it belongs to the family Dioscoriaceae. We shall explain how to grow this plant in this post. 

Varieties: Arka Upkar, Pusa 1 and FB(C) - 2.

Soil and climate: Well drained clay loam soil is suitable. Can be grown in tropical and subtropical climatic conditions.

Propagation: Propagated through single node leaf cuttings or tuber pieces.

Single node leaf cuttings: This consists of a single leaf with petiole and about 0.8 cm of the

stem. The cuttings are quick dipped in 5000 ppm IBA and planted in mist chamber for rooting.

After about 8 - 10 weeks, the plants are transferred to polythene bags. After 5 - 6 months, they are planted in the main field at a spacing of 45 x 3 cm during June - July or September - October.

Rhizomes each piece weighing 50 - 60 g with one or two buds can also be used for planting. A

pre-planting dip in Carbendazim 2 g/lit for 10 minutes is essential.

Manuring

Basal: Apply FYM 20 t/ha. N, P and K 100 kg/ha.

Top dressing: Apply 10 kg N in three equal splits at second, third and fourth months.

Aftercultivation: The vines need support for optimum growth and a pandal may be provided.

Bamboo poles or gunny twines may be used to lead the vines to the pandal. 1 - 2 weedings are  essential in the first year. Spray the crop with 25 ml Dicofol in 10 lit of water to control aphids and red spider mites.

Harvest: Harvest at 2 years of age manually using pick axes or deep ploughing with mould plough.

Yield

Fresh tubers : 50 - 60 t/ha.

Diosgenin content : 3.0 to 3.5 %

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