Tomato planting procedures and production techniques

The botanical name of Tomato is Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; it belongs to the family Solanaceae

Varieties: PKM 1, CO 3 (Marutham) and Paiyur 1.

Soil: Well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6.5-7.5.

Season of sowing: May - June and November - December

Seed rate: Apply FYM 10 kg, Neemcake 1 kg, VAM 50 g, Super phosphate 100 g and 10 g furadon per square metre before sowing.

Seed treatment: Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g or Pseudomonas fluroscens 10 g or Carbendazim 2 g per kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing. Just before sowing, treat the seeds with Azospirillum @ 40 g/400 g of seeds. Sow in lines at 10 cm apart in raised nursery
beds and cover with sand.

Preparation of field: Plough the land to a fine tilth. Form ridges and furrows and transplant 25 days old seedlings on one side of the ridges. Apply 2 kg of Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria per
ha mixed with 100 kg FYM before planting.

Spacing: PKM 1, Paiyur 1 : 60 x 45 cm
CO 3 : 45 x 30 cm

Irrigation: After establishment of seedlings irrigate at weekly intervals.

Application of fertilizer: Apply FYM 25 t/ha, N 75 kg, P 100 kg, K 50 kg, Borax 10 kg and Zinc sulphate 50 kg/ha as basal dose and 75 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting during earthing up.
Spray 1 ppm (1 mg in one lit) Triacontanol, 15 days after transplanting and at full bloom stage to increase the yield.

Weed control: Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or fluchloralin 1 kg a.i/ha as pre-emergent herbicide followed by one hand weeding 30 days after planting.

Mulching: Black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm.

Plant Protection against Pests
Fruit borer: Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (common for both)
Grow simultaneously 40 days old American tall marigold and 25 days old tomato seedlings @ 1:16 rows.
i. Set up pheromone traps @ 12/ha.
ii. Collection and destruction of damaged fruits and grown up caterpillars.
iii. Spray endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit or carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit or Bacillus thuringiensis 2g/lit or quinalphos 2.5 ml/lit.
iv. Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50000/ha release coinciding with flowering time and based on ETL.
For Helicoverpa armigera: H.a.NPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha
For Spodoptera litura: S.l. NPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha. Provide poison bait with carbaryl 1.25 kg, rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit.
Serpentine leaf miner: Spray Neem Seed Kernel Extract 50 g/lit.
1. Install yellow sticky traps to attract the adult.
2. Spray dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml/lit or triazophos 40 EC 2 ml/lit or fish oil rosin soap 25 g/lit. or dimethoate 2 ml/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/lit. Add wetting agent.
3. Remove alternate weed host Abutilon indicum
Nematode: Application of Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m at sowing and 1 kg a.i./ha in the main field one week after transplanting. Treat the seeds with antagonistic fungi Trichoderma viride at
4 g/kg seed along with pressmud at 5 kg/m2 for nematode disease complex.

Protection against Diseases 
Damping off (nursery)
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM. Stagnation of water should be avoided. Drench with Copper oxychloride
at 2.5 g/lit at 4 lit/sq.m.
Leaf spot: Spray Zineb or Mancozeb 2 g/lit.
Leaf curl: Spray systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Monocrotophos or Dimethoate at 2 ml/lit. to kill the insect vector, whitefly.
Tomato spotted wilt virus: Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg a.i./ha in nursery at sowing and second
application at 1.25 kg a.i./ha 10 days after transplanting in mainfield and 3 sprays of Endosulfan 35 EC 1.5 ml/lit @ 25, 40, 55 days after transplanting.

PKM 1 : 30-35 t/ha
CO 3 : 40 t/ha
Paiyur 1 : 30 t/ha

COTH 1 HYBRID TOMATO planting procedures 
Season: May – June, November - December

Seed Rate: 150 g/ha

Seed Treatment: Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing and with Azospirillum @ 20 g/150 g just before sowing.

Nursery: Hybrid seedlings can be raised in protrays filled with composted coir pith (98 cells) with 1.25 kg composted coir pith.
Fill the protrays with composted coir pith and sow 1 seed per cell and water with rose can.

Field preparation and planting: Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg (10 packets) of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha by mixing with 20 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant 25 days old seedlings, with the ball of earth, on the ridges adopting a spacing of 45 cm between the plants.

Basal Dose : NPK 50:300:50 kg/ha
Top dressing : N and K each 150 kg/ha in 3 equal splits at 30, 45 and 60 days after

Irrigation: Irrigate the field on the third day of planting and subsequently at weekly intervals.

Weed control: Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or fluchloralin 1 kg a.i/ha as pre-emergence herbicide followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after planting.

Mulching: Black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm.

After cultivation
a) Weeding and hoeing on 30th day and earth up.
b) Stake the plants 30 days after planting with 1 - 1.5 m tall stakes.
c) Remove the side branches up to 20 cm from ground level.
d) Foliar spray of ZnSO4 0.5 per cent thrice at 10 days interval from 40 days after planting.

Plant protection
Apply carbofuran 3 G granules 7 days after transplanting to control sucking pests/vectors.
Spray methyl demeton or monocrotophos or dimethoate 1 ml/l against thrips and whitefly.
Spray endosulfan 2.5 ml/l or carbaryl 2.5 g/l to control fruit borer.
Spray Zineb or Mancozeb 2 g/l to control leaf spot diseases.

Harvest: Harvest the fruits when they turn red.

Duration: 110 - 115 days from transplanting (135 - 140 days from sowing).

Yield: 80-90 t/ha

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