Onion planting procedures and production techniques

Onion - Small Onion (Aggregatum); botanically called Allium cepa var.  aggregatum; Belongs to the family

Varieties: CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, CO 4 and MDU 1, CO(On) 5 free flowering and seed setting type.

Soil: Red loam to black soils with good drainage facilities. It grows well between pH range of 6-7 and a mild season in without extremes of heat and cold.

Season and sowing: Sow the medium sized bulbs during April – May and October – November.

Seed rate: 1000 kg/ha.

Preparation of field: Plough the land to a fine tilth. Form ridges and furrows at 45 cm spacing.
Sow the bulbs on both the sides of the ridges at 10 cm apart.

Irrigation: After sprouting, irrigate at weekly intervals. Withhold irrigation 10 days before harvest.

Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 t/ha, Azospirillum 2 kg and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha, N 30 kg, P 60 kg and K 30 kg/ha as basal and 30 kg N/ha on 30th day of sowing.

Plant protection against Pests
Thrips and onion fly: Methyl demeton 25 EC 1 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/lit or
monocrotophos 36 WSC 1 ml/lit with Teepol 0.5 ml/lit.
Cutworm: Drench the soil with chlorpyriphos @ 2 ml/lit.

Protection against Diseases
Leaf spot: Spray Mancozeb 2 gm/lit or Copper oxychloride 2.5 gm/lit. Add Teepol 0.5 ml/lit of spray fluid.

Harvest and Yield
12 – 16 t/ha in 70 to 90 days. 18 t/ha in 90 days for CO(On) 5 onion
Clean and dry the bulbs for 4 days in shade soon after harvest.
Spray Maleic hydrazide at 2500 ppm 15 days before harvest to extend the shelf life of onion.

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