Turmeric planting procedures and production techniques

The botanical name of Turmeric is Curcuma domestica Val.; it belongs to the family  Zingiberaceae

Varieties: CO 1, BSR 1, Roma, Swarna, Sudarshana, Suguna, Sugandham, BSR 2, Ranga, Rashmi, Rajendra Sonia, Krishna, Suroma and Allepy Finger Turmeric (AFT).
Soil and climate: A friable well drained red loamy soil in wet or garden lands under tropical conditions is ideal.

Season: May-June

Seed Treatment: 30 tonnes of FYM + 500 kg of AM as soil application + 10 kg each of Azospirillum and phosphobacteria as rhizome treatment / ha.
In addition to the above dose application of FeSO4 100 kg / ha + ZnSO4 50 kg / ha + 1 t of composted coir waste can be done. Enriched manure can be applied in 3 equal splits at 3, 4 and 5 months after planting to alleviate chlorosis in turmeric.

Seeds and sowing: Mother rhizomes are better yielder than finger rhizomes.

Seed rate: 1500-2000 kg rhizome/ha.

Spacing: The rhizomes are to be dibbled in the sides of ridges, 45 cm apart at 15 cm spacing at a depth of 4 cm.

Manures and manuring
Basal: FYM 10 t,/ha neem or groundnut cake - 200 kg/ha, N, P and K at 25, 60 and 18 kg; 30 kg of Fe SO4 and 15 kg ZnSO4. 10 kg in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium per ha to be applied planting one month.
Top dressing: N, K at 25 and 18 kg/ha applied on 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting.
Micronutrient application: For correcting deficiency of micronutrients especially Boron, Iron and Zinc at rhizome development stage, apply 375 g Ferrous sulphate, 375 g Zinc sulphate, 375
g Borax, 375 g of Urea in 250 lit of water/ha. Spraying twice at 25 days interval is recommended.
The above micronutrients are dissolved in Super phosphate slurry (15 kg Super Phosphate is dissolved in 25 lit of water stored overnight and the supernatant solution is made upto 250 lit). In this solution, the micronutrients are added.

Intercultivation: Onion, Coriander and Fenugreek can be planted as intercrop on the sides of the ridges 10 cm apart (250 kg seed Onion per ha) Redgram and Castor can also be planted at wider spacing. First weeding after three weeks and whenever weeding is necessary. The plants are earthed up at the time of 2nd and 4th top dressings.

Plant protection
Pre planting treatment: The seed rhizomes are dipped in carbendazim 1 g/lit and phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.5 ml/lit for controlling rhizome rot and scales.
Protection against Pests
Thrips: Spray dimethoate 30 EC or methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/litre.
Rhizome scale: Apply well rotten sheep manure @ 10 t/ha in two splits (one basally and other at earthing up) or Poultry manure in 2 splits followed by drenching dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit or phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or Application of Carbofuran 3 G @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha.
Seed rhizomes dipped in phosalone 35 EC 2ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.5 ml/lit and then stored.
Nematode: Avoid planting turmeric after Banana or other solanaceous vegetables. Plant only after taking suitable control measures. Apply Carbofuran 4 kg a.i./ha twice on the third and fifth month after planting the rhizomes.

Protection against Diseases
Rhizome rot: Drench with Bordeaux mixture 1 % or Copper oxychloride 0.25 %. Treat the seed rhizomes with 0.3% Copper oxychloride for 30 min before storage.
Leaf spot: Spray Carbendazim 500 g/ha or Mancozeb 1 kg/ha or Copper oxychloride
1.25 kg/ha.

Harvest: The plants will start lodging in about nine months. Yellowing and drying of leaves are the signs of crop maturity. The rhizomes are picked after digging deeply with spade or digging forks.

Fresh rhizomes : 25-30 t/ha
Cured rhizomes : 5-6 t/ha

Storage of seed rhizomes: Seed rhizomes can be stored in open sand media with a partially closed pandal

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