Conservation of natural resources refers to the sustainable utilization of natural resources, like soils, water, plants, animals, and minerals, timber, fish, game, topsoil, pastureland, and minerals, and also to the preservation of forests-forestry, wildlife-wildlife refuge, parkland, wilderness, and watershed areas.

Conservation of natural resources is currently being embraced in the wider conception of conserving the soil itself by protecting its ability for self-renewal.
For the most part complicated process is the issues that are inherent with nonrenewable resources like oil and coal as well as other minerals of enormous demand.
Present thinking as well favors the protection of the whole ecological regions by the production of “biosphere reserves.” Examples of such conservation areas are the Great Barrier Reef off Australia and Adirondack State Park in the United States.
The critical nature of reconciling individual utilization and conservation away from the boundaries of parks has turn into yet another very crucial issue.
The natural resource of an area is made up of its essential capital, and inefficient utilization of those resources leads to an economic loss. From the artistic point of view, conservation as well involves the preservation of national parks, wilderness areas, historic sites, and wildlife.
Natural resources are made up of two major types, renewable natural resources and nonrenewable natural resources.
Examples of renewable natural resources are wildlife and all forms of natural vegetation. The soil itself can be taken as a renewable resource, even though any serious damage to it is not easy to repair due to the sluggish rate of soil-forming processes.
The natural drainage of waters from the watershed of an area can be sustained indefinitely through careful management of vegetation and soils, and the quality of water can be regulated through water pollution control.
Nonrenewable resources on the other hand are those that cannot be replaced or that can be replaced except after an exceptionally long periods of time. Examples of such resources are the fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, and natural gas as well as metallic ores.

Natural Resources: Wildlife and Conservation Biology

The aim of renewable resource conservation is to make certain that resources are not used up faster than they are replaced. Non renewable resources are fossil fuels and mineral deposits, like iron ore and gold ore.
Conservation activities for nonrenewable resources center on maintaining a sufficient supply of these resources far into the future.
Natural resources are conserved for their biological, economic, and recreational values, in addition to their natural beauty and relevance to local cultures.
For instance, tropical rain forests are shielded for their crucial role in both global ecology and the economic livelihood of the local culture; a coral reef may be sheltered for its entertaining significance for scuba divers; and a scenic river may be sheltered for its natural beauty.
Conservation divergences are experienced when natural-resource shortages build up in the face of progressively increasing demands from a growing human population. Disagreement occasionally envelop the way a resource ought to be utilized, or allocated, and for whom.
For instance, a river may provide water for agricultural irrigation, habitat for fish, and water-generated electricity for a factory.
Farmers, fishers, and industry leaders compete for unlimited right of entry into this river, but a freedom like this may obliterate the resource, and conservation methods are essential to safeguard the river for future use.
The competition gets worst when a natural resource extends across political boundaries. For instance, the headwaters, or source of a main river may be situated in a different country than the country through which the river flows.
There is no assurance that the river source will be safeguarded to provide accommodation reserve requirements downstream. Additionally, the manner in which a natural resource is handled has a direct effect upon other natural resources.
Cutting down a forest close to a river, for an example increases erosion, the wearing away of topsoil, and can result to flooding. Eroded soil and silt cloud the river and has adverse affect on a lot of organisms like fish and essential aquatic plants that need clean, clear freshwater to thrive.

Methods of Conservation

The confrontation of conservation is to comprehend the complicated connections among natural resources and reach a sense of balance between resource utilization and protection to make certain a sufficient supply for potential generations.
In order to accomplish this goal, a variety of conservation methods are used. These include reducing consumption of resources; protecting them from contamination or pollution; reusing or recycling resources when probable; and completely defensive, or preserving, resources.
Consumption of natural resources increases considerably every year as the human population increases and standards of living also increases. The large, developed nations, are responsible for the majority of consumption of natural resources due to their high standards of living.
For example, in 1992 an average American used up as much energy as 27 Filipinos or 370 Ethiopians. Conservation education and the considerate utilization of resources are essential in the developed countries to minimize natural-resource consumption.
For instance, minimizing the high demand for tropical hardwoods like teak and mahogany in the United States and Japan would reduce the rate of tropical forest destruction.
To safeguard natural resources from pollution, individuals, industries, and governments have a lot of obligations.
These obligations prevents or limits the utilization of pesticides and other harmful chemicals, limits wastewater and airborne pollutants, averts the production of radioactive materials, and controls drilling and transportation of petroleum products.
Failure to do so leads to contamination in the air, soil, rivers, plants, and animals. For instance, if governments need that all oil tankers be fitted with double-layered hulls, the damages to fisheries and wildlife from the varieties of oil spills of the 20th century, like the 1967 Torrey Canyon oil spill in the English Channel, may have been minimized.
In a lot of instances, it is likely to reuse or recycle resources to lessen waste and resource consumption and conserve the energy desired to manufacture consumer products. For instance, paper, glass, Freon-a refrigerant gas, aluminum, metal scrap, and motor oil can all be recycled.
A preventative measure known as precycling, a general term for designing more robust, recyclable materials like reusable packaging, encourages reuse.
A few resources are very unique or valuable that they are protected from activities that would destroy or degrade them. For instance, national parks and wilderness areas are protected from logging or mining because such activities would reduce the economic, recreational, and aesthetic values of the resource.
Forests and wetlands -areas with high soil moisture or surface water may be protected from development due to the fact that they improve air and water quality and make available habitat for an extensive variety of plants and animals.
Unfortunately, these areas are frequently susceptible to development due to the fact that it is difficult to estimate the economic benefits of cleaner air, cleaner water, and the majority of other environmental benefits of these ecosystems-the plants and animals of a natural community and their physical environment.

Current Types Of Conservation

There are a lot of fundamental conservation methods utilized in the protection of global natural resources. Although each resource has a unique set of conservation problems and solutions, all resources are interconnected in a complex and little-understood web.
Scientists have learned that damaging one thread of the web may weaken the entire structure. It is important that this connectivity be addressed in the search for solutions to resource shortages.
It would be impractical to work toward the conservation of soil, for instance, without considering the needs and effects of nearby water and vegetation resources.

1. Conservation of Biodiversity, or biological diversity

This refers to the number and variety of various organisms and ecosystems in a particular area. Preserving biodiversity is crucial for ecosystems to react flexibly to damage or change.
For instance, a single-species corn crop may be easily destroyed by a particular insect or disease, but if a lot of various species of corn are planted in the field, a few of them may resist the insect or disease and survive.
Humans gain a lot from the varieties of medicines, crops, and other materials made available by biodiversity. About 40 percent of our present day pharmaceutical medicines are obtained from plants or animals.
For example, a tiny plant from Madagascar, known as the rosy periwinkle, manufactures substances that are efficient in combating two deadly cancers, Hodgkin’s disease and leukemia.
Unfortunately, human activities have to a large extent reduced biodiversity all over the world especially the happenings of the 20th century. The highest threat to biodiversity is loss of habitat as humans develop land for agriculture, grazing livestock, industry, and habitation.
The major drastic damage has taken place in the tropical rain forests, which encompass less than seven percent of the Earth’s surface but posses above half of the planet’s biodiversity.

2. Conservation of Forest

Forests make available a lot of social, economic, and environmental benefits. Additionally to timber and paper products, forests make available wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities, avert soil erosion and flooding, aid in the provision of clean air and water, and possess fantastic biodiversity.
Forests are as well a crucial defense against global climate change. Through the process of photosynthesis, forests create life-giving oxygen and make use of enormous amounts of carbon dioxide, the atmospheric chemical majorly responsible for global warming.
By the reduction of circulating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, forests may lessen the effects of global warming.
Irrespective of this large areas of thickest forests in the world have been cleared for wood fuel, timber products, agriculture, and livestock. These forests are quickly disappearing.
The countries with the majority of tropical forests tend to be developing and overpopulated nations in the southern hemisphere. As a result of deprived economies, people resort to clearing the forest and planting crops in order to survive.
Although there have been efficient efforts to stop deforestation directly through a lot of multinational organizations that are responsible for abusive logging, the major efficient conservation policies in these countries have been efforts to reduce poverty and make bigger access to education and health care.

3. Conservation of Soil

Soil is a mixture of mineral, plant, and animal materials. It is necessary for the majority of plant growth and is the essential resource for agricultural production. Humans have increased soil erosion processes by developing the land and clearing away the vegetation that holds water and soil in place.
The rapid deforestation occurring in the tropics is particularly damaging because the thin layer of soil that remains is fragile and quickly washes away when exposed to the heavy tropical rains.

4. Conservation of Water

Clean freshwater resources are necessary for drinking, bathing, cooking, irrigation, industry, and for plant and animal survival. Regrettably, the world supply of freshwater is dispersed unevenly. Constant water shortages occur the majority of African country and drought is widespread over the majority of the globe.

5. Conservation of Energy

Every human culture needs the production and utilization of energy—that is, resources with the capability generate work or power. Energy is utilized in transportation, heating, cooling, cooking, lighting, and industrial production.
The world energy resources depends on a lot of various resources which includes traditional fuels like firewood and animal waste, which are important energy sources in various developing countries. Fossil fuels account for more than 90 percent of global energy production but have a lot of problems.
They are nonrenewable and their use causes air pollution. Coal power plants for an example have been one of the worst industrial polluters since the onset of Industrial Revolution of the 19th century.
In addition, mining or drilling for fossil fuels has lead to extended environmental damage.
There is a global need to increase energy conservation and the use of renewable energy resources.
Renewable energy alternatives like waterpower (using the energy of moving water, like rivers), solar energy (using the energy from the sun), wind energy (using the energy of the wind or air currents), and geothermal energy (using energy contained in hot-water deposits within the Earth’s crust) are effective and practical but are greatly underutilized due to the ready accessibility of cheap, nonrenewable fossil fuels in industrial countries.
In addition to making use of alternative energy resources like solar and wind power, energy conservation measures as well encompass enhancing energy efficiency. For example, transportation accounts for the majority of the oil consumption in the United States.
Encouraging the expansion and use of public transportation systems and carpooling considerably increases energy efficiency. In the home, energy can be conserved by turning down thermostats, switching off unnecessary lights, insulating homes, and making use of less hot water.