CHARACTERISTICS OF SUB-PHYLA VERTEBRATA

-They have jointed internal skeletons of bone and cartilage
-Bilaterally symmetrical
-They have well  developed sense organs (namely; eyes for vision, olfactory organs for smell, auditory organs for hearing, taste buds for tasting and tactile organs for touch)
-They have “closed” blood system
-Alimentary canal has several distinct regions the head contains a brain which is enclosed within a cranium
-Most vertebrates have paired fore (pectoral) and hind (pelvic) limbs
-They all have a pair of kidneys and gonads
-The skin of most vertebrates bears a covering of scale, feathers or hairs
-The notochord is replaced by vertebral columns
-Reproduction is usually sexual
-They are triploblastic
-They operate at system level of organization (most complex)
-Examples are fish, toad, lizard, etc.