The botanical name of beans is Phaseolus vulgaris
It belongs to the Kingdom Plantae
It is an Angiosperms of the Tracheophyta
Beans is a Eudicot
It is a Rosid of the Order Fabales
It is a member of Family Fabaceae 
Its Genus is known as Phaseolus
The most common Species is the Phaseolus vulgaris known as common bean or dry kidney beans

Species of beans and their botanical names 

Common beans - Phaseolus vulgaris

The common bean is a highly variable species with a long history. Bush varieties form erect bushes 20–60 cm (8–20 in) tall, while pole or running varieties form vines 2–3 m (7–10 ft) long. All varieties bear alternate, green or purple leaves, which are divided into three oval, smooth-edged leaflets, each 6–15 cm (2–6 in) long and 3–11 cm (1–4 in) wide. The white, pink, or purple flowers are about 1 cm long, and they give way to pods 8–20 cm (3–8 in) long and 1–1.5 cm wide. These may be green, yellow, black, or purple in color, each containing 4–6 beans. The beans are smooth, plump, kidney-shaped, up to 1.5 cm long, range widely in color, and are often mottled in two or more colors. Raw or undercooked beans contain a toxic protein called
phytohaemagglutinin. Common bean is high in starch , protein, and dietary fiber , and is an excellent source of iron , potassium, selenium , thiamine , vitamin B 6 , and folate. Source: Wikipedia 

Green beans - Phaseolus coccineus

The botanical name of green beans is Phaseolus coccineus. It is also known as the runner beans or scarlet runner beans. 
It is a biannual species of great vegetative vigour with stems of several metres which emerge from a fleshy root. 
The Green beans  is easily distinguished by: its large seeds (the weight of 100 seeds is 80 to 170 g and 6 to 12 g for the wild form) and small, narrow, elliptical hilum; and its large influorescences (20 cm and in excess of 20 fruit-bearing stems) with scarlet, white or, more rarely, two-colour flowers. 
It carries out hypogeal germination, has a fleshy root which is divided and generally fusiform and which allows cotyledonary young shoots to resprout over several consecutive years. 
It flowers 50 days after sowing. with early varieties, or at the start of the rains, and continues to produce flowers over a long period, except in the shrubby varieties. 
In the majority of cases green beans undergoes cross-pollination. assisted by its extrorse stigma and nectaries and through the action of bees and humming birds.

Tepary bean - Phaseolus acutifolius

The botanical name of tepary beans is Phaseulus acutifolus. 
It is a desert therophyte and is easily distinguished from other species of beans by its epigeal germination, sessile primary leaves, acute rhomboid folioles, pseudoracemes—with two to four fruit-bearing stems—small pink flowers (white in some) with very small triangular bracteoles and pods that have sutures marked with five to ten ovules. Autogamy appears to be dominant 
Tepary bean has a short cycle, flowering 27 to 40 days after germination and ripening at 60 to 80 days. The plants wither completely. In the wild forms of tepary beans, seeds are dispersed within a radius of 3 m by explosive dehiscence of the pods. In some, there is a brief postharvest latency of one month. The seeds of the wild plants germinate through the imbibition caused by the heavy desert rainfalls of the following year. However, only in some is germination staggered over three years.

Butter bean -  Phaseolus lunatus

The botanical name of butter beans is Phaseolus lunatus. It is also called Lima bean, Burma bean, duffin bean or Rangoon bean.
It shows epigeal germination and fibrous roots. Its ancestral forms come from low- or medium-altitude tropical deciduous forests. It is easily distinguished by its half-moon seeds. It is striated from the hilum and has: deltoid folioles; pseudoracemes with four to 12 fruit-bearing stems; small flowers, with a standard which is greenish or purple; very small, roundish bracteoles; and smooth, falcate pods with three to six ovules. The two wild forms display marked differences but do not justify differentiated taxonomic treatment because of the considerable introgression among their genetic stocks. It is an autogamous species with an introrse stigma, but cross-pollination may exceed 32 percent.

The earliest genotypes flower 35 days after sowing and complete their cycle in around 100 days. Others may have two flowering cycles per year depending on the distribution of rainfall. In dry areas, the plants sprout from the lower part of the stem with the return of rainfall. In the majority of the traditional varieties, the guide leaves are long (3 to 6 m), indeterminate, creeping (and therefore useful as ground cover) or climbing.

The fibrous roots may attain several metres on filtering soils with deep humidity, thus giving the plants great vegetative vigour (greater than maize) and a survival period of up to four years. In the wild populations of butter bean, the seeds are dispersed through explosive dehiscence of the pods.


Botil - Phaseolus polyanthus Greenman

Its botanical name is Phaseolus polyanthus Greenman. It is easily distinguished from the other species by its epigeal germination; fibrous, fasciculate roots; inflorescences with six to 16 fruit-bearing stems; primary bracts and long, narrow bracteoles (giving the pseudoraceme the appearance of a spike); white or lilac flowers (purplish pink in the wild form); and terminal stigma. Its seed (70 to 100 g per 100 seeds for cultivated varieties and 16 to 25 g for wild forms) has a wide, elliptical hilum and the parahilum is frequently broken.


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What is the botanical name of beans?