7.       
(a) Describe the organisational
structure of the Nigerian
Youth Movement (NYM)
.    
(b) What led to its collapse?
8.       
Highlight the factors that contributed
to the failure of the
policy of Assimilation in the
French West African Colonies.
9.       
Describe how a Legislative
Council was controlled in
British West Africa before the
Second World War.
10.    
Why did the nationalists criticize
the post 1945
Constitutions in British West African Colonies?
11.    
Outline the conditions thai gave
rise to the adoption of
federalism in Nigeria.
12.    
In what ways do member States of
the Organization of
African Unity (OAU) co-operate with one another?
Colonial rule
contributed to the decline of the powers of the
traditional rulers in West Africa through the
following ways.
A     Colonial rule led to
breakdown of the existing Sinks between
the traditional
rulers and their subjects, making the former
mere appendages of
alien government.


B.     The introduction of wage earning for working
subjects by
colonial  government 
gave  the  subjects  
economic
independence from the traditional
rulers.
C.     The influence of western education resulted in the
breaking
down of traditional norms and values
of society e.g. paying
of homage and respect for the traditional
rulers.
D.     The influence of foreign religion scaled down the
power of
the traditional rulers as the spiritual authority of their people.
E.      The establishment of law courts by the
colonialists eroded
judicial power of traditional rulers.
F.      The setting up of legislative council by the
colonial authority
reduced the law making functions of
traditional rulers.
G     The introduction of native or local
authorities which took over
the traditional
rulers absolute control over taxation and its
disbursement.
H.    The use of forced labour and conscription
by the colonial
authority
reduced the popularity of the traditional rulers. I.      The colonial Governors was vested with
appointment and
removal of
traditional rulers reduced the prestige of traditional
rulers and
misdirected their ioyality. J.     The
stoppage of inter-tribal war put to an end the means by
which traditional
rulers accumulated wealth.
SOLUTION -: Q7
A ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF
N.Y.M.
The Nigerian Youth movement was
structured along this line -: (i) There was Nigerian Youth Movement annual
congress or convention, (ii) There
was national executive headed by a president.
(Hi} Nigerian Youth Movement had branches in some urban areas throughout Nigeria, (iv) The Movement had ad-hoc committees which carried out various
functions. e.g. the planning and organization of 1938 elections, (v) The
body had a secretariat headed by an elected
national secretary, {vi) The Nigerian
Youth Movement had its quarters in
Lagos which was the center of political activities during the period, (vi) The main objective of NYM was to
promote national unity in Nigeria.
B. REASONS FOR THE COLLAPSE OF N:Y.M. The Nigerian Youth Movement collapsed
due to the following reason -: (i) Lack of trust and internal wrangling or
misunderstanding with the organization. The
establishment of the daily service newspaper
as the official mouth piece of the party did not please Dr.Nnamdi
Azikiwe the publisher of the West African pilot, (ii) There was fundamental
defects in its organisational structure
which could not stop the movement of key members to other political parties, (iii) Ethnic and tribal factor -; This factor created misunderstanding and fear of
domination among leaders and their supporters,
(iv) The resignation of its leaders
Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe and Samuel Akinsanya destroyed the national outlook of the party, (v) The emergence of new and formidable political parties such as
the National Council Of Nigeria and
the Cameroons (N.C.N.C).
SOLUTION -: Q8
1.        
Division of Africans into
two/Dual citizenship -: Assimilation
produced
1st class and 2nd class citizens. Some West
Africans
were made citizens and others remained subjects.
2.        
No respect for the people’s
culture -: France did not regard
the culture
of the people.
3.        
Lack of respect for traditional rulers and chieftaincy
institution -:
This was one of the failures of the system. The
existing institutions were dismantled and
France had to set
up the ones that suit its whims and
caprices.
4.        
Indignate policy -: It was an obnoxious policy, that received
world
condemnation. The policy allowed French security
agents to arrest and detain
Africans for 2 years without trial.
5.        
Limited right to education -: France provided limited
educational opportunity for those
in the colonies. In addition,
provision of education was limited to people
in the four
communes. Non-citizens i.e.-other
people living outside the
communes had no access to education.
6.        
Formation
of political parties and association -: Formation
of political parties and associations was not allowed.
7.        
Highly
centralized administration -: It
makes the French
administrators authoritarian and
high handed by centralizing
so highly the administrative
machinery of the federation.
People cannot criticize or contribute
towards the issues of
government.
8.        
The success of indirect rule
-: In colonies under Britain
especially in West Africa necessitated the
change in the
policy of assimilation.
9.      Financial burden -: The policy of assimilation placed
financial burden on French
citizens who therefore resisted it.
SOLUTION-:Q9
The colonial Governor exercised wide range of
controlling measures on the legislative
council in West Africa before the second world war.
It was because of the enormous powers of the
colonial Governor that he was described as a virtual dictator. The weapon of control are -;
1.        
The use of veto powers which made
it possible for the
Governor to veto laws passed by
the legislative body.
2.        
Appropriation bill or money bill
-: It was only the colonial
Governor that had the absolute
power to introduce any bill
dealing with revenue generation
or spending.
3.        
There was power of certification
which allowed the colonial
Governor to enforce any bill
rejected by the legislative council.
4.        
There was colonial secretary who
had the power to approve
drafted important bills for the
Colonies.
5.        
Official control -: Official
members who where minority in the
legislative council exercise
control measures while African
unofficals who were in majority
had no such power of control.
6.        
Revision of law.: The power to
review any law passed by the
legislative council was given to
the colonial secretary or
secretary for colonies.
7.        
Legislative councils in all
British colonies were to pass laws
in accordance with the colonial law validity Act of 1865.
8.        
Casting of vote -: The colonial
Governor as the president of
the legislative had the power of
casting,vote when ever there
was a tie votes in the council.
This will happen when the
unofficial had equal votes with
the official members.
SOLUTION: Q10
The nationalists criticize the post 1945
constitution because of the following reasons.
1.        
The nationalist criticized the
post 1945 constitution due to
iack of consultation with the
colonial people before the
various colonial constitution
were imposed on them. e.g.
Richards constitution of 1946.
2.        
They were opposed to the
continuing inclusion of nominal
members into the legislative
councils, e.g. the Macpherson
constitution of 1951 in Nigeria.
Allan Bums of 1946 in gold coast.
3.        
The inclusion of traditional rulers in the legislature
was seen
as preventing greater participation of
educated elites.
4.        
There was no improvement on the
franchise introduced in
1922 under Clifford constitution,
i.e retention of limited
franchise.
5.  The
executive councils’in the various colonies was not
responsible to the legislature as the case
in Britain. 6-     Related to the above, the executive
council was made up of
few elected people while majority of its
members were
nominated or appointed. 7.     Colonial Governors continued
to enjoy and exercise veto
power and reserved power which made it
possible for the
colonial Governors to over ride the decision
of the legislative
council.
The following factor led to the adoption of
federalism in Nigeria, (i) Historical reasons -: The
people of Nigeria had similar and cultural relationship before the advent of
colonial rule (ii) Size of the country -: The
largeness of the country coupled with
diversity in culture and ethnic composition, (iii) Geographical factor -: All the different nations
or areas that made up Nigeria before and
during the colonial period
were close to each other, (iv) British colonial policy -: Britain adopted the policy of divide and rule which
was later transformed into true federalism
by the Lyttteton constitution of 1954. (v) Availability of human and natural
resources -: Nigeria has enough of these
resources to run a federal system,
(vi) For effective Administration -: Federalism
makes for duplication of
functions, creating the atmospheu for an enduring and effective administration,
(vii) Bringing government nearer
to the people. This is to involve the people at local level in the process of
governance, (viii) The need to recognize and protect the right of the minority
tribes so as to give them a sense of
belonging, (ix) Fear of domination of one ethnic group
over others. This fear became serious
when Nigeria was moving towards nationa independence,
(x) The 1953 political cricises in the legislative council arising from the motion for self
government, (xi) The collapse of Macpherson constitution of 1951. (xii) desire
for unity among Nigerian political
leader which was freely expressed and agreed during
various constitutiona1 conferences
e.g. the 1953 and 1954 constitutionai conferences.
SOLUTION -:Q12
Member countries of organization for African
unity are cooperating
with
one another through the following ways.
(i) Members work together to ensure a peaceful
settlement of disputes by negotiation,
mediation, conciliation and arbitration.
The common one is boarder disputes, (it) Promotion
of economic cooperation through joint projects on transport and communication through agencies like African Development Bank (ADB). Economic
Commission for Africa (ECA), Economic
Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), (iii)
Unreserved condemnation in all its forms or ramification
of political assassination as well as of subversive activities on the part of neighbouring countries or any other country, (iv) Organisation of
educational, sporting and cultural
cooperation e.g. Festac. African nations cup. (v) Promoting scientific and technical cooperation
among member states e.g. Technical
Aid scheme introduced b Nigeria,
(vi) Member states of OAU has in recent time always taken collective decisions at international
organisations such as U.N.O. (vii) They have worked together to
eradicate all forms of colonialism from
Africa and helped in the release of
south Africa nationalist leader; Dr. Nelson Mandela, (viii) Members always meet
to discuss African and world affairs (ix) As one of the aims of O.A.U. members
has continue to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of each
state (x) Joint efforts airmed at promoting
health, sanitation and nutritional
cooperation in Africa, (xi) When ever the need arises members of O.A.U.
provides military assistant and support
to member countries e.g. Congo Democratic Republic, Liberia. Sierra-Leone.