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What is Proportional Representation? Discuss its merits and Demerits

A
Proportional, Representation is a system which ensures the total number
of votes which a party scores is calculated proportion to the total number of
votes cast. This ensures tr each party is represented in the legislature.
ILLUSTRATION:-For example, take
the figures below as the results of an election in which three parties
participated, assuming that there are 120. seats in the legislature.

% of votes
No.
of seats
allocated
Party      A            65,000 Party      B            20,000 Party      C            1 5,000
votes 65 votes 20 votes 15
78 24 18
TOTAL No. of votes 100,000
100%
120

 Each party is
allocated seats in the legislature according to percentage votes.

MERITS OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION
1.     PROPORTIONAL
REPRESENTATION:-
There is proper
consideration of each vote cast, making the reality of the notion of ‘one man; one vote’ ‘one
value.
2.     IT
IS DEMOCRATIC:-
The system makes
for a true democracy. They are involved i the decision making process
3. EQUAL WEIGHTS:-

The system allows
all seats to be given equal weights.

4. IT INCREASES VOTERS
CHOICE:-
The choice of the
voters are widened, especially in a multi-member constituency. 5. WIDER CONSULTATION:

It reflects the views of all areas,
groups. Through this a truly representative
government is put in place.

6. UPHOLD FREEDOM OF
EXPRESSION:
Proportional
representation also allows free expression of individual opinion.
 

DEMERITS OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION.
1.    WEAK GOVERNMENT:-
Since each state
or party is represented according to its population, a weak government may be
produced.
2.    FALSE ASSUMPTION:-
The system is based on a wrong
assumption.
3.    COMPLEX  ELECTORAL SYSTEM:-
It increases the
complexity of the electoral system. 
4. EMERGENCE OF SPLINTER
GROUPS:-
–      :   many of these  group may emerge in the system.

5. REDUCES PARTY DISCIPLINE:- This is due to the fact that representatives
are representing the   interest
of the electorates. So, in most cases, they tend — disregard party discipline in issues about the electorate. Party
discipline is highly desirable to give order to government.

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