The botanical name of mango is Mangifera indica
It belongs to Kingdom Plantae
It is a Tracheophytes, an Angiosperms, a Eudicot and a Rosid
It belongs to Order Sapindales
The mango plant is a member of Family Anacardiaceae and its Genus is known as  Mangifera.

Botanical description of mango

It is the most economically important fruit crop in the Anacardiaceae (Cashew or poison ivy family
The plant is a large fruit-tree, which can grow up to a height and crown width of about 100 ft, and trunk circumference of more than 12 ft.
Mango trees make handsome landscape specimens and shade trees. They are erect and fast growing with sufficient heat, and the canopy can be broad and rounded, or more upright, with a relatively slender crown. 
It has been cultivated in India for over 4000 years and is now found  in most tropical countries.
The leaves are spirally arranged on branches, linear-oblong, lanceolate – elliptical, pointed at both ends, the leaf blades mostly about 2.5m long and 0.8m wide, sometimes much larger, reddish and thinly flaccid when first formed and release an aromatic odour when crushed. 
The inflorescence occurs in panicles consisting of about 3000 tiny whitish-red or yellowish – green flowers. 
The mango fruit is a well known large drupe, but shows a great variation in shape and size. It contains a thick yellow pulp, single seed and thick yellowish – red skin when ripe. 
The seed of mango plant is solitary, ovoid or oblong, encased in a hard, compressed fibrous endocarp.

Mango species and their botanical names 

Mangifera indica is the common Mango. The other edible Mangifera species generally produce less desirable fruit and are commonly referred to as wild mangos. Mangifera foetida, for example produces astringent fruits that can be pickled, but not eaten raw. The fruit from mango tree species is classified as drupe. 
Below is a list of some popular mango species:
Mangifera indica - common  
Mangifera altissima - Pahutan mango
Mangifera caesia - Malaysian  
Mangifera casturi - Kalimantan
Mangifera foetida - Horse mango
Mangifera odorata - Kuweni  mango
Mangifera persiciformis - Peach mango 
Mangifera siamensis - Thai mango
Mangifera sylvatica - Himalayan Mango